Grid Tutorial
Cameron Kiddle
Grid Research Centre
University of Calgary
Acknowledgments
Rob Simmonds
Mark Fox
Phil Rizk
Abhishek Gaurav
Andrey Mirtchovski
Nayden Markatchev
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Outline
Grid Computing Overview
Basic Grid Services

security, data management, resource
management, information services
Advanced Grid Services

meta schedulers, workflow managers, replica
location service
Future of Grid Computing
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Grid Computing
Aimed at providing users with a single
system view of a set of distributed
resources that span administrative
domains
Aids in solving large scale problems
Aids in collaborative research efforts
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Current Grid Projects
CERN LCG (LHC Computing Grid)
GriPhyN (Grid Physics Network)
NEES (Network for Earthquake
Engineering Simulation)
BioSimGrid
IVOA (International Virtual Observatory
Alliance)
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WestGrid and Grid
Is WestGrid a computational grid?
Provides grid enabled resources



Security services
Data transfer tools
Job submission services
WestGrid resources can be part of
computational grids
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Global Grid Forum (GGF)
Leads the global standardization effort for
grid computing
Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)
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Open Grid Services Architecture
Infrastructure Services
Resource Management Services
Data Services
Context Services
Information Services
Self-Management Services
Security Services
Execution Management Services
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Grid Middleware
Globus Toolkit


Globus Alliance
Open source
Legion



University of Virginia
Now commercial product developed by Avaki
Focuses on data grid / enterprise integration
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Globus Toolkit
Collection of grid services to aid in
development of grid applications and
environments
GT-2 – pre standards (defacto standard)
GT-3 – Open Grid Services Infrastructure
(OGSI)
GT-4 – Web Services Resource
Framework (WSRF) – beta version
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Basic Grid Services
Security Services

GSI (Grid Security Infrastructure)
Data Management

GridFTP
Resource Management

GRAM (Grid Resource Allocation and
Management)
Information Services

MDS (Monitoring and Discovery Service)
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Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI)
Based on



Public key cryptography
X.509 certificates
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Provides


Mutual authentication
Single sign-on
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Certificates
Used to identify and authenticate users
and services
Includes four primary pieces of information




Subject name
Public key
Identity of Certificate Authority (CA)
Digital signature of the Certificate Authority
Provides global name space
Encoded in X.509 certificate format (IETF)
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Mutual Authentication
Process of two parties proving to each
other who they say they are
Both parties must trust CAs that signed
each other’s certificates
Each party sends certificate to other


Make sure certificate is valid
Make sure other party really is the party
identified in the certificate
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Single Sign-On
Sign-on only once to computational grid
Use a proxy to avoid re-entering password




Consists of new certificate and private key
Certificate signed by owner, not CA
Less secure – limited lifetime
Both proxy certificate and owner’s certificate
sent for mutual authentication
grid-proxy-init
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GSI Demo
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MyProxy
Developed by NCSA (National Center for
Supercomputing Applications)
Credential repository
Allows proxy credential to be received
from any machine
Can allow trusted servers to renew proxy
credentials
myproxy-init, myproxy-get-delegation
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MyProxy Demo
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File Transfers
gsiscp


scp version based on GSI
Easy to use, but provides poor performance for large
file transfers
GridFTP





Based on FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
GSI security on control and data channels
Modification of TCP buffer sizes
Parallel transfers
Third party transfers
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File Transfer Performance
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File Transfer Demo
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Grid Resource Allocation and
Management (GRAM)
Provides a single standard interface for
remote job submission and resource
management
Requires users and application developers
to learn only one method to gain access to
a large variety of local management
systems
globus-job-run, globus-job-submit
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Job Submission Demo
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Monitoring and Discovery Service
(MDS)
Provides information about availability and
status of resources
Uses LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol) to access this information
Grid Resource Information Service (GRIS)

Provides resource information
Grid Index Information Service (GIIS)

Provides caching services and search
capabilities
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Advanced Grid Services
Meta-schedulers
Workflows
Replica Location Service (RLS)
Abstract Workflows
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Meta-Schedulers
Condor-G (Condor)

University of Wisconsin-Madison
Moab Grid Scheduler (Silver)

Cluster Resources Inc.
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Condor-G
Can submit and manage jobs at multiple
sites
Uses Globus mechanisms to communicate
with resources at different sites
Can advertise sites that jobs can be
submitted to through Class Ads
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Class Ad
Used to represent characteristics and
constraints of resources and jobs
Consists of a list of attributes (name/value
pairs)
Used in matchmaking of jobs to resources
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Condor-G Demo
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Workflows
C1
E1
A
B
C2
D
E2
C3
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DAGMan
Directed Acyclic Graph Manager
Node = program
Edge = dependency
Monitors Condor log files to enforce
ordering of dependencies
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DAGMan Input File
Programs in the DAG
Pre/post processing scripts
Dependencies
Number of times to retry
Macro definitions
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Sample DAGMan Input File
JOB A A.condor
A
JOB B B.condor
JOB C C.condor
JOB D D.condor
B
C
PARENT A CHILD B C
D
PARENT B C CHILD D
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Rescue DAGs
Aids in resubmission of uncompleted
portions of workflows
Produced if DAGMan can not make any
further progress in a DAG due to node
failures
Same as original DAG but nodes that
successfully completed before are marked
as DONE
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Life3D Workflow
Animation
Life3D
Simulation
Rendering
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Life3D Workflow - II
blackhole (SFU)
2. Life3D Simulation
1.
lattice (UofC)
Data Storage
Grid Research Center
WestGrid
3.
grc15
7.
octarine
5.
4. Rendering
6. Animation
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Life3D Workflow - III
grc15
blackhole
Stage
Data
octarine
lattice
Animation Stage
Data
Life3d
Simulation
Stage
Data
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Rendering
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Stage
Data
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DAGMan Demo
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Life3D Animation
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Replica Location Service (RLS)
Co-developed by Globus and DataGrid projects
Provides a mechanism for registering and
locating replicas
Maintains mappings between logical names and
target names


Logical names – unique identifiers for data content
that may have one or more physical replicas
Target name – physical location of a replica or other
logical names representing the data
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Chimera Virtual Data System
Part of the GriPhyN project
Distributed with the Virtual Data Toolkit
Keeps track of how data products are derived
Partial
Workflow
Abstract
Workflow
Chimera
(VDL)
Virtual Data Language
Concrete
Workflow
Pegasus
(DAG)
(DAX)
DAG XML
RLS
TC
MDS
(Transformation Catalog)
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Chimera
Input - Virtual Data Language (VDL)


Transformation – an executable program
Derivation – an execution of the
transformation along with logical input and
output file names
Output – Abstract Workflow (DAX)

Workflow activities independent of specific
grid resources
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Pegasus
Input – Abstract Workflow
Output – Concrete Workflow (DAG)

Workflow activities assigned to specific Gird
resources
Uses RLS to determine data file locations
Uses Transformation Catalog to map logical
transformations to physical locations
Uses MDS to determine available resources
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Chimera Example
infile
(blackhole)
transitfile
add10
add20
(lattice)
(nexus)
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outfile
(blackhole)
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Chimera Demo
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Summary
Basic Grid Services
Advanced Grid Services
Security Services (GSI)



Meta-scheduler
grid-proxy-init
myproxy-init
myproxy-get-delegation

Concrete Workflows
Data Management
(GridFTP)


globus-url-copy

DAGMan
Replica Location Service
(RLS)
Resource Management
(GRAM)

Condor-G
globus-job-run
globus-job-submit
Abstract Workflows

Chimera/Pegasus
Information Services

MDS
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Future of Grid Computing
Integration of Web Services and Grid Services
Web Services Resource Framework (GT-4)
Standards are more established


Involvement of more developers
Better tools
Grid-enabled applications


Common library interface
“run_job_on_grid”
Wider spread use
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Contact Information
Cameron Kiddle
[email protected]
http://grid.ucalgary.ca/
http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~kiddlec/
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