What could should Sweden learn from Germany?
Sustainable Days, Nordbygg April 2nd 2014
Stockholm 2012 10 23 – Staffan Schartner
Staffan Schartner, Föreningen för Byggemenskaper
I will present
• a very brief historical review
• some problems in Swedish residential construction
• a comparison with German developments
• the conclusion that Sweden need to de-industrialise
• Swedish co-housing initiatives
…but first an important definition
BAUHERR = BYGGHERRE =
BUILDER
DEVELOPER
CLIENT
CONTRACTOR
”PRINCIPAL”
Byggherre kallas enligt plan- och bygglagen (PBL) den som för egen räkning
utför eller låter utföra byggnads-, rivnings- eller markarbeten genom en
byggentreprenör eller byggmästare.
…but first an important definition
BAUHERR = BYGGHERRE =
BUILDER
DEVELOPER
CLIENT
CONTRACTOR
”PRINCIPAL”
Byggherre kallas enligt plan- och bygglagen (PBL) den som för egen räkning
utför eller låter utföra byggnads-, rivnings- eller markarbeten genom en
byggentreprenör eller byggmästare.
BAUMEISTER = BYGGMÄSTARE = (CONTRACTOR)
Sweden: Changing focus in how to build
Until middle of 19th
Century
Building for own needs
1870-1910
Workers live in slums
Raw capitalism
Charity projects
2nd half of 19th Century
Speculation occurs
Fairly small properties
Private funds
1910-1945
Increasing state
involvment.
Standardisation
Modernism!
1890-1930
Cooperatives
occurs. Growing
self reliance.
1975-1992
Backlash
Low activity
Continued subsidies
1945-1975
Public housing
Subsidies
Deep involvment
Increasing scale
Industry created
1918
1994-2014
No public involvment
Housing commoditised
Market oligopoly
Few private initiatives
Small production
1990 Tax reform
1991-94 Finacial crisis
1915 SKB, 1923 HSB
1850
1900
New homes in Stockholm 1900-2010
2015Set for a new turn
to more diversity
and a smaller scale
in residential
construction
1933 1944
1970
1992
2010
What went wrong in Sweden?
GERMANY
Deep public involvment
in post-war housing.
Growing industry and
massiv destruction in the
war requires large
volumes of new homes
SWEDEN
Deep public involvment
in post-war housing.
Growing industry and
migration requires large
volumes of new homes
1945
Private initiative replaces
step by step public housing.
Medium size contractors in
residential construction.
Regional and local bodies
responsible for much of
legislation and subsidies
Housing markets mainly in balance
Huge number of private ”principals”
Moderate costs, good quality
Increased focus on social, ecological, spatial
and economic sustainability
Smaller scale and differentiated
types of dwellings
Forceful efforts towards
industrialisation.
Large scale projects ,
large corporations and
prefabrication replaces
craftsmen and
traditional contractors
Shortages and low production
Large scale projects
Small number of corporate ”principals”
Very high costs, moderate quality
Standardised buildings and apartments
Money rules – no social considerations
1960
1980
2000
2015
So, here we are …
- producing by far to few dwellings
- using the existing stock of flats poorely
- having high prices (and costs)
- buying dull flats in uninspiring buildings
- watching the government act in panic
- seeing things get worse rather than better
What should we do?
Further industrialisation of the most
industrialised construction sector?
Many eyes are turned to Germany,
but what is there to look for?
I think Sweden should look at this:
How come a Swedish contractor, who is
not the largest developer in Sweden, can
be (one of?) Germanys largest developer
of new homes with a production smaller
than it is in Sweden?
How come 80% of German housing is
produced with persons as principals,
when 100% of projects in Stockholm are
handled by 30 corporate developers?
How come social, economic, ecological
and spatial sustainability can be the
driving force in German land allocation?
How come engagement and smaller
scale gives lower cost and better quality?
AVINDUSTRIALISERA
BOSTADSBYGGANDET
In my opinion, Sweden
has to de-industrialise
the housing sector.
Large scale, vertically integrated,
profit-driven, anonymous
corporations with a heavy overhead cost and expensive financing
are not well suited to handle the
most personal, site-dependent,
complex, diverse and craftsmen
dependent production there is
- individual homes.
Some quotes from the Frankfurter Allgemeine and Die Zeit
”Instead of a bidding, we now have
a concept assesment. Idea beats the
cheque book – what a message!”
”Land allocation on concept quality
is mandatory. The better the social
mix and the ambition in architecture,
energy efficiency and mechanical
installations, the better the chances”
”It is no coincidence that co-building
projects work as role models”
”Many Germans are taking
advantage of low interest rates to
realize their dreams. Since cobuilding lower the cost, apartment
buildings are gaining ground”
On top of it – co0building
”Baugemeinschaften”
In Tübingen, co-building is mainstream
and the preferred way of handling new
developments. (You just heard why)
München is stating an official ambition
of a 20-40% co-building share of public
land allocation,
Hamburg is more moderate with a
stated goal of 20% - and special
legislation for their subsidised financing.
Many states and cities use tax-money to
support the formation and success of
co-building groups.
How come?
”In co-building,
people are
creating urban
devlopment
instead of being
its victims”
Cord Soehlke
Französisches Viertel,
Tübingen
Some co0building benefits
Allows small scale (narrow properties)
Different ambitions > huge variation!
Very high involvment of ordinary citizens
Social stability and consciousness
Engagement for the neighbourhood
Large variety in the types of dwellings
High standards for sustainability
Little economic speculation
Long term persepctives
Up to 30% lower costs for living
Opportunity to fulfil special wishes
Co0building in Sweden
Byggemenskaper
”To most people, co0building does not exist as a concept”
(but everyone think co0owning is the most normal thing)
„Bostadsrätt“ bedeutet Baugenossenschaftswohnung und hatte seinen Ursprung darin,
dass sich eine Baugemeinschaft zusammen fand um gemeinsam ein Gebäude oder eine
Häuserzeile zu errichten und nach gemeinsamen Regeln und geteilten Kosten zu
verwalten. Heute werden diese Baugenossenschaften überwiegend bereits von den
Baugesellschaften gegründet, die dann den Anteils-Käufern die Regeln und Kosten
gewissermaßen diktieren.
„Bostadsrätt“ betyder „Baugenossenschaftswohnung“ och hade sitt ursprung i
att en byggemenskap bildades för att tillsammans bygga ett eller flera hus samt
efter gällande regler och med delade kostnader förvalta det. Nu för tiden
bildas dessa Bostadsrättsföreningar oftast av byggbolagen, som då i viss
utsträckning kann diktera villkoren och kostnaderna för andelsköparna.
Herbert Kårlin i „Schweden-Aktuell“
Co0building in
Sweden 2014
Sweden map
”In Stockholm we treat
everyone the same way”
The Stockholm property board controls about
70% of the land within the city borders:
”We treat co-building groups the same way as
any other investor”
”We take into consideration the investors
economy, stability and long-term interest”
”We also consider the investors track-record
from previous projects”
”The investor will have to take all economic risk
during the development of the zoning plan”
The time between land allocation and start of
the construction project is normally 5-8 years.
The investors cost to handle this process can be
SEK 0,5 – 1,5 M.
In 2013, 50 properties with an average size of
102 dwellings were allocated to 25-30 different
investors (some acting with sister companies).
Four advices to facilitate non0industrial
residential construction
• Smaller properties
• Planning before land
allocation
(”Detaljplan före markanvisning”)
• Land allocation based on
quality and sustainability
(using market land values)
• Payments as late as possible
in the process
..but of course, cities can do much more!
There is after all a strong trend towards a
new urban development also in Sweden!
Vallastaden, Linköping (Bo 17)
”Co-building is when
private persons are
forming a group and,
based on their own ideas,
as principal together plan,
build and later use their
building.
W5 Planungsgesellschaft, Tübingen – free translation
”Vi älskar villan men vill bo i stan .”
Foto: UrbanaVillor, Cord Siegel, Pontus Åqvist och Karin Larsson.
”Co-builders can have any type of
driving force, and what they build
can be anything . New or old, large or
small, courageous or conventional.
The defining aspect is that the
persons who are going to use what is
buing built together have the
defining influence on what i being
built.
Chemnitzstrasse Hamburg
Forms of organisation
- Ägarlägenheter
- Bostadsrättsförening
- Kooperativ hyresrätt med
eget fastighetsägande
(bolag eller förening)
- Kooperativ hyresrätt med
blockförhyrning
- Konventionell hyresrätt
med eget hel- eller delägt
fastighetsbolag
Byggemenskaper
thank you for listening!
Staffan Schartner - 070 850 88 55 - [email protected]
Varför bygger byggemenskaper billigare?
SEK/m2
Det här är allmänt bekant:
Ju mindre projekt, desto högre
kostnad per m2.
m2
Varför bygger byggemenskaper billigare?
SEK/m2
Psilander (KTH)
Byggindustrin
Lokala byggare
Men i verkligheten visar forskningen lägre
m2-kostnader för mindre projekt.
m2
Varför bygger byggemenskaper billigare?
80000
70000
60000
50000
Vinst + risk
40000
Byggnad
30000
Mark
20000
10000
0
Byggbolag
Byggemenskap
Varför kan byggemenskaper bygga där andra inte kan?
35000
30000
Marknadspris
25000
20000
Vinst + risk
15000
Byggnad
Mark
10000
5000
0
Byggbolag
Byggemenskap
Varför kan byggemenskaper bygga där andra inte kan?
35000
Egen finansiering
30000
25000
Marknadspris
20000
Vinst + risk
15000
Byggnad
Mark
10000
BankFinansiering 75%
5000
0
Byggbolag
Byggemenskap
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och genomförandet av deras
byggnadsprojekt.
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Förening byggemenskaper Staffan Schartner