Elements and Principles of Design Elements: Principles: Line Balance Shape Emphasis & Focal Point Form Contrast Color Movement Value Variety Texture Pattern & Repetition Space Unity Harmony/Gestalt Line A line is defined as a mark with length and direction, created by a point that moves across a surface. A line can vary in length, width, direction, curvature, and color. Contour, Diagonal, Broken, Curved, Outline, Implied, Vertical, zigzag, Horizontal, Wavy, Slanted, Continuous, Solid, Narrow, Bold Jasper Johns, 0-9 (continuous line) Gesture drawing line Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm LINE Andy Goldsworthy Keith Haring Shape Shape is an enclosed space defined by other elements of art. Shape is 2-Dimensional Shape can be: Geometric: Angular, man-made concept Organic: curvilinear - found in nature Fernana Leger, The City Matisse, from the series “Jazz” Picasso, Three Musicians FORM 3 Dimensional Shape. Volume MC Escher, Self Portrait Vincent Van Gogh, Shoes Tamara de Lempicka Portrait of Ira P. 1925 Value An element of art that refers to luminance or luminosity – the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is an especially important element in works of art when color is absent. This is particularly likely with drawings, printmaking, and photographs Kathe Kollwitz, Self portrait Value Chuck Close (made w/ thumbprints!) Edward Weston, Pepper (photograph) Texture Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object, such as roughness, smoothness, or softness. Actual texture can be felt while simulated textures are implied by the way the artist renders the surface area Oppenheim Fur-lined cup Texture Actual and Implied Albrecht Durer Rhinocerus Golsdworthy Color Is an element of art with three properties 1) Hue, the name of the color, e.g. red, yellow, etc. 2) Intensity or the purity and strength of the color 3) Value, or the lightness or darkness of the color Jasper Johns, Target (primary colors) Delauney Primary Colors Piet Mondrian Wassily Kandinsky Warm Colors • Colors that are often described as being higher in temperature • Reds, oranges, yellows • Associated with fire and sun • Optically, appear to advance • Stimulating and passionate Ex. Warm Cool • Colors that are often described as being lower in temperature • Greens, Blues, and Violet • Associated with water, sky, and spring • Optically, they appear to recede • Calming and depressing Ex. Cool Color and Mood Van Gogh, the Night Cafe Picasso, the Old Guitarist Space Space is the empty or open area between, around, above, below, or within objects. Shapes and forms are made by the space around and within them. Space is often called three-dimensional or two- dimensional. MC Escher Space Positive space is filled by a shape or form. Negative space surrounds a shape or form. Space/Depth May be created by overlapping, change in scale, perspective placement, color theory, or projection toward the viewer. David Hockney Place Furstenberg, Paris, August 7,8,9, 1985 -#11985 Balance Balance is a sense of stability in the body of work. Balance can be symmetrical (formal) or assymmetrical (informal) Wayne Thiebaud, Around the Cake (formal balance) Symmetrical/Formal Balance Diane Arbus, Twins Symmetrical Balance Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper 1495-1498 Asymmetrical Balance Edgar Degas (informal balance) Asymmetrical Balance Variety When elements are changed in scale, color, or form. Stuart Davis Andy Warhol Movement Movement adds excitement to your work by showing action and directing the viewers eye throughout the picture plane. Edward Munch, the Scream Movement Umberto Boccioni, Unique forms of continuity in space Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending Staircase Dominance & Subordination The part of a composition that is emphasized, has the greatest visual weight, the most important, powerful, or has the most influence. Emphasis & Focal Point Emphasis - Any forcefulness that gives importance to some feature or features of an artwork; something singled out, stressed, or drawn attention to by means of contrast, anomaly, or counterpoint Focal Point = portion of an artwork's composition on which interest or attention centers David Hockney Emphasis & Focal Point Barbara Kruger Rene Magritte Pattern & Repetition Involves multiples of the same element. Repeated elements can vary in size, color, or axis placement. Repeated elements can create a pattern. The use of repetition may be applied to all Visual Elements. Motion can be created by repetition. William Morris Arts and Crafts Movement Pattern & Repetition Chuck Close, Self Portrait, detail Contrast A large difference between two things, such as light and shadow, color and black/white Andy Warhol Contrast David, the Death of Marat Economy Unity & Harmony The quality of wholeness or oneness (Gestalt) that is achieved through the effective use of the elements and principles of design. Claude Monet Haystacks Unity Cezanne Wayne Theibaud Unity Van Gogh “Starry Night” What Elements and Principles stand out? What Elements and Principles stand out? Goya, “The 5th of May” What Elements and Principles stand out? Gauguin What Elements and Principles stand out?