Summarizing Strategies
Essential Question: How can I use summarizing
to increase student learning in my classroom?
Assessment Prompts:
• What is summarizing?
• Why should students summarize?
• How is summarizing distributed throughout a lesson?
• What are some strategies for summarizing at the end
of a lesson?
Free powerpoint template:
What is Summarizing?
• Summarizing is a learning strategy.
• It asks the learner to restate key points of the
lesson or answer the essential question in a
few words or in a new way.
Summarizing is the strategy that has the second greatest effect on
student achievement. (Marzano, Pickering and Pollock in Classroom
Instruction that Works.)
Free powerpoint template:
Summarizing Formats
• Writing – summarize key points; something you’ve learned
• Orally – numbered heads; discuss or answer the essential
question in pairs
• Dramatically – individually or in pairs act out the content
• Visually/ Artistically – create a visual that summarizes the
content of what we have learned
• Physically – use movement to show understanding of the
• Musically – create a jingle, poem, or rap
Free powerpoint template:
Ones, tell the twos what
summarizing is.
Twos, tell the ones five different
formats for summarizing.
Why summarize?
• Helps the teacher gather evidence of learning
– Students’ misconceptions, confusions, and misunderstandings surface
• Builds comprehension and long-term retention of information
for students
• Helps students understand what they understand and what they
still need to learn
• Gives students the chance to use new vocabulary
• Helps students construct personal meaning from their learning.
Free powerpoint template:
Ones tell the twos why
summarizing is helpful for the
Twos tell the ones why
summarizing is helpful for the
What are two types of summarizing?
• Distributed summarizing
throughout the lesson
• Summarizing at the end of the
Free powerpoint template:
Distributed Summarizing
Based on attention span of students (age + 1 or 2
Helps teacher know who has learned information
before moving on with more information
Is linked to the assessment prompts
Requires dialogue rather than yes/no answers
Involves all students
Occurs throughout the lesson
Free powerpoint template:
Basic Strategy: Numbered Heads
• Number students in pairs and assign each student a
• Assign a task to each numbered student
• Plan when to insert a question prompt
• Create questions to be asked at important intervals
• Chunk your instruction and ask questions at predetermined intervals
Free powerpoint template:
Prompts or Questions for Pairs
• “We have been talking about __________. Ones,
clarify or explain _________ to your parenter and
two’s report.”
• “Ones, explain to twos why ________ is important.
Twos, share one or two key ppoints to remember
about __________.”
• “Twos tell ones how to _________ (stpes in a
process). Ones carry out the process and twos
describe. If you disagree, explain why and discuss.
Free powerpoint template:
Twos tell the ones what distributed
summarizing is and why it’s
Ones tell the twos what the basic
strategy is for distributed
summarizing and the things you need
to remember when planning for it.
Summarizing at the End of a Lesson
Ticket out the Door
Carousel Brainstorming
Absent student letter
Key Word Acrostic
Inside/Outside Circles
The Important Thing
ABC Review
Show me
– Draw a picture or diagram; create an organizer
• Writing
– Learning Log
– $2 Summary
Free powerpoint template:
Let’s Try Some!
Free powerpoint template:
Twos tell the ones four summarizing
strategies that involve writing.
Ones tell the twos four summarizing
strategies that don’t involve writing.
Complete your organizer by writing a
summary to answer the essential question.
How can I use summarizing to increase student
learning in my classroom?