Grades 7-12 7-12 Bernadette Boerckel – Warrior Run SD Why Summarize? Summarizing is a life skill It promotes comprehension Research shows the brain remembers best what it learns first and last Based on research by Robert Marzano: summarizing strategies assist students in retaining information and making connections to prior knowledge We work hard to TEACH we want to ensure students RETAIN Let’s us know what they know Strategies that Most Impact Student Achievement Category Rank Percentile Gain Identifying Similarities & Differences 1 45 Summarizing & Note-taking 2 34 Reinforcing & Recognizing Effort 3 29 Homework & Practice 4 28 Nonlinguistic Representations 5 27 ~based on Robert Marzano Summarizing… • Must be done by the student to have any impact on learning • Requires every student to answer the essential question • Seems straightforward but is actually complex • Depends on numerous mental processes • Can be oral or written • Students can’t “fake it” • Provides evidence of learning • Is used to formatively assess to set the learning path Apply an APL Strategy: 10-2 After every 10 minutes of instruction Check for understanding for 2 minutes In the Lesson Plan, summarizing… Can be DISTRUBUTED in the form of Assessment Prompts throughout the lesson Or Can be found at the end of the lesson as a final summary Let’s take a look……. Lesson Plan What do students need to learn to answer the LEQ?(These are statements) Assessment Prompt 1: Assessment Prompt 2: Assessment Prompt 3: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Instruction for AP 1: Activity to Check for Understanding of AP 1: Instruction for AP 2: Activity to Check for Understanding of AP 2: Lesson Plan Sample: LEQ: How does a bill become a law? Assessment Prompt 1: sequence of steps in a bill becoming a law Assessment Prompt 2: the role of the President in whether a bill becomes a law Assessment Prompt 3: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Instruction for AP #1: Read House Mouse, Senate Mouse to complete the flow chart graphic organizer showing the steps in a bill being sent to the President. Students create non-verbal representations to go with each step on the graphic organizer. AP #1: Give each pair an envelope with the different steps involved in a bill becoming a law to put in the correct order Let’s Look at some MORE! Look at samples With a partner, discuss how the samples reinforce what we have reviewed about effective summarizing thus far. Questions? Why words matter 7-12 Bernadette Boerckel We know that… • A child at or below the poverty line typically hears 600-700 words per hour at 12-18 months old at home =5000 words by kindergarten • A child from a middle class typically hears 1200-1300 words per hour at 12-18 months old at home =9000 words by kindergarten • A child from an upper income family hears 2900-3100 words per hour at 12-18 months old at home =15,000-20,000 words by kindergarten -National Inst. Of Health 1999 We know that • Students must know 95% of the words they hear and read for successful comprehension • Memorizing new words doesn’t help students learn…especially the lower-income set • They have no context / background knowledge • We must BUILD context and connections Comprehension is greatly enhanced when students can identify examples or applications as well as nonexamples. Elaboration! Non-verbals We also know… • Previewing helps comprehension later and provides… • The MULTIPLE EXPOSURES that help to solidify vocabulary acquisition Steps for planning vocab instruction 1) Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) term Ask students to restate the description, explanation or example in their own words (spoken or written) Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the new term Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms -Building Academic Vocabulary, Alexandria, VA: ASCD Let’s experience this It is hard to define words when you don’t have words. PLAY TABOO Review of Best Practices: PREVIEWING • Choose the MOST ESSENTIAL words to preview No names No places Content words Process words Comprehension words THEN… Discover or build background knowledge Activating and Previewing Strategies Do I Know What These Words Mean? (pg 59) Word opine exacerbate chasm stereoscope Not at all Have Seen Think I know Know and Can Use (example) (Description) Turn to a partner and use this image to summarize what vocabulary research tells us. Visual Prompts Teacher provides students with a picture along with a prompt: a magazine photo, an illustration, a slide, transparency, snapshot, etc. Students respond to it in writing or in a classroom discussion using one of the following formats: narrative, descriptive, persuasive, or expository For Example…. You just finished a lesson on water displacement…or Independence Day…or Persuasive Writing You could show the following images at the end of the lesson (or at a point 10 minutes into instruction) and ask students to write down or tell a neighbor how the image relates to what they just learned. Password / $10,000 Pyramid Pair up with a partner. Decide who is a 1 and who is a 2. 1’s turn away from the screen. 2’s turn to face the screen and your partner. A series of pictures or terms are revealed. 2’s start at the bottom left and go across giving clues to your partner. When your partner guesses correctly, start the next series of clues. Follow the arrows until you and your partner reach the top of the pyramid. Vacation Picnic Pool Start here Restaurant Creek Swamp 4th – Newton’s Laws Force Newton’s 1st Law Position Newton’s 2nd Law Motion Direction Poetry terms rhythm mood symbolism tone imagery metaphor Quick Talk Quick Talk (Talk As Fast As You Can) (pg 105) (Like Taboo, but with no restrictions) • Use this to reinforce words learned already • Put words up on the board • Class is in partners with one partner facing words • Describe the words as fast as they can • First team to get them all jumps up and cheers for a reward Ready to try? Get partner in the right place. -Rules: can’t say any part of the word! -Can skip and come back to Shout when finished! Words in education 1. Differentiate 6. Lecture 2. Accelerate 7. Adaptation 3. Instruct 8. Final exam 4. Overhead 9. Blue book Projector 5. Chalk dust 10. Seminar Tic-Tac-Know Using a board of images or words, explain to your table or a partner how 3 of the pictures or terms relate or connect - in a row either up, down, across, or diagonal Can have students discuss or write Spanish la mesera restaurant el cocinero meal el menu preparation la cuenta tip la mesa Science etc etc Words Matter: Using Bloom to differentiate checking for understanding and summarizing http://uwf.edu/cutla/SLO/ActionWords.pdf Bloom YouTube Shaping Up Review “The Heart” – students write one thing that they loved learning about in the lesson “The Square” – students write four things that they feel are important concepts from the lesson being reviewed; one concept in each corner “The Triangle” – students write the three most important facts they learned from lesson being reviewed; one fact in each corner. “The Circle” – students write one, allencompassing (global- like the circle) statement that summarizes all of the important concepts and facts learned in the lesson being reviewed Mystery Box Teacher displays a box with a variety of objects or vocabulary cards inside relating to the content. Teacher selects students to draw an object or card from the bag, one by one. Students discuss orally or in writing what they know about each item as it relates to the content. (Before the lesson, this activates prior knowledge, after, it summarizes what was learned.) Letter Bag Letter Bag / Acrostics Topic: The Beach Students choose a letter from the bag. Each student shares a word that begins with his letter and that summarizes the lesson’s content. Or…create a list with as many words as you can beginning with the letter Or…ACROSTICS: Give a word to the WHOLE class and have them come up with words starting with each letter. Try this with BEACH with a partner Hot Seat Before the beginning of class, the teacher prepares 4-5 questions related to the topic of study and writes them on sticky notes. Place the sticky notes underneath student desks so they are hidden from view. At beginning of class, inform students that several of them are sitting in “Hot Seats” and will be asked to answer the questions. Have the students check their desks for the strategically placed sticky notes. Students who are in the “Hot Seats” take turns answering the questions. I struggle with the visual We know that non-verbals work…but they are so hard! One partner face the screen, the other the back wall. Ready for some Pictionary? From the words shown, choose whichever you want. If your partner gets it, move to another word. Ready….. Pictionary laser diagonal biscuit hydrogen Rubber darkness vegetarian comfy macaroni exercise shrew glitter fireside mirror migrate chestnut ditch wobble neighborhood dizzy retail drawback fabric barber jazz drought logo Spark Video Draw A Picture Summarize the video by drawing a picture or diagram of your spark. On my cue, share with a partner and relate your photo to the talk you heard. 3-2-1 3 things you learned 2 things that inspired you 1 your spark Relay Summary Students are divided into small groups. The first student starts with a blank piece of paper and writes a sentence about the topic discussed during the lesson. The second person adds a sentence then passes it on. This continues until all students have written one sentence each. Recipe Using the Spark Video: 1 List ingredients to making a difference in kids lives 2 create a narrative to accomplish a task Anticipation Guide See handout for example (pg 25) “Dear _________” Dear ______ (Absent Student, teacher, Principal, etc.) Write a letter to ____________________ explaining what has been learned and answering the essential question. Guide with prompts: This lesson was about…I already knew…but was surprised to learn…You would have enjoyed…To summarize, I think…Hurry back to class…Sincerely Another way to preview… Word Knowledge (pg 62) Word sobriquet lamster avuncular brachiate Prior Knowledge New Knowledge Word Maps and Charts (pg 64-68) -What the word is -what the word is like -examples of the word Word Splash brainstorm Word Splash metacognition confidence Word Sorts / Picture Sorts (pg 79) • • • • • • • • Students fold a piece of paper forming eight boxes Tear on folds Give students a topic (government) Ask them to write six words (one per paper) and save two In groups of four, combine words and sort them into categories Use the blanks to label categories (Open Sort) If the teacher gives categories (Close Sort) Can be used with pictures for non-readers Collaborative Card Sort Students have the chance to classify topics, words, and phrases into categories Process of sorting and classifying strengthens the student's ability to comprehend and retain difficult information Through a discussion of possible solutions, students negotiate the contextual meaning of the topics, words, or phrases This can have a GO with titles, or not! Examples 9th grade LA: Include the titles Character, Plot Events, and Setting on a GO and have students sort through samples of each into the correct category. Science: Classification of anything Spanish: Like vocabulary clusters or parts of speech Lingo 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pass out or fold paper into 9 squares. Call on 9 students to choose a word from the word wall. As a student chooses a word, everyone writes the word somewhere on their grid. When everyone has filled up all 9 spaces, you are ready to play. The teacher (who has written the 9 words down, too) calls off one at a time. Students chant the spelling of each and cover the word. The first student to complete a row wins. Word Wall Oak Maple Sumac Apple Pear Cherry Bush Shrub Plant analyze categorize classify compare contrast discover divide examine inspect simplify survey take part in test for distinguish list distinction theme relationships function motive inference assumption conclusion dissect 5-3-1 (with Pair Square) (pg 85) • Write down 5 words (on your own) about the reading or topic • Pair to choose the 3 BEST words • Square (4) and as a group, decide on the 1 best word to explain the meaning of the content and explain why the word was chosen to the class. Is this a Vocabulary or a Summarizing Activity? BOTH VIDEO (if time) How does the video you just saw and 5-3-1 relate to solid vocabulary and summarizing practices? Charades You know how it works….but did you know it is at the top of Bloom? Create: Dramatize: Role-play! Let’s try it. • • Charades -------------------------------------------------------Relay / Telephone Charades Split the class in half Have each half form a line facing away from one another. Sit down. • The first person in line taps the next and acts out a word. When the person thinks they have it, they clap twice. The actor sits and the new person acts out what they “thought” the word was to the next person. • The last person runs to the front and writes the word down. I Have…Who Has… (pg 104) • Create cards in advance and pass out to students: • Examples: • I have a polygon. Who has a 3-sided figure with a right angle? • I have a triangle. Who has a 4-sided figure where all four sides are equal? • I have a square. Who has…. Graffiti / Carousel Summarization • Prompts, key terms, or concepts are strategically placed around the classroom. • Teams of students rotate from prompt to prompt, adding information to the chart or responses at each station. Each group’s response must differ from those who wrote previously. • (Carousel: Groups stay, paper is passed on cue) • Let’s try it! Concentration (pg 145) • Fold paper into 8 sections. • Write down 4 words and 4 definitions to those words • (i.e. Snow …..frozen rain, Rain…..liquid precipitation) • Rip up, mix up with partner, all face down in rows • Play concentration. Keep your matches. • Kids who make flashcards could do this! Connect 3 Vocab Word • Write sentences to connect the words in any order around the triangle • Could pictures be used? Vocab Word Vocab Word lamster 1930s sobriquet Give One, Get One (pg 137) Students create lists of words that relate to a topic for 2 minutes. Students walk around the room giving and getting new words, one per person. Time this until students have between 5-10 new words Students now work in pairs to divide their list into 2 categories, discarding words that do not fit. (May use resources here) Students now can create posters displaying words from one category using pictures as well to define the meaning These can be posted as visual vocabulary guidance. Review your notes / slides from the beginning on Vocabulary Research. (2 minutes) List as many words you can that relate to these concepts…stretch (2 minutes) Give one, get one (4 minutes) Back and categorize – create poster with one key concept, vocabulary, and image(s) Post and share Primary Word Wall Activities See pages 189 – 197 Intermediate Word Wall Activities See pages 199-203 Exploring the Book With a partner, read through each activity. Imagine a word wall that you have or use a lesson plan in front of you to work one of these activities in. Be prepared to share what you used and how it will look in the classroom.