Creative Approaches
What kind of appeal should the
ad have?
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Rational
Emotional
Endorsement
Comparative Advertising
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Explicit – where the identity of
competitive products are known
Implicit – where the the identity is not
disclosed
Limitations – consumers don’t like the
hard – sell, sponsor misidentification,
unsuitable for market leaders
2 – sided vs 1 – sided ads
2 sided ads are seen to be more credible
 Consumers appreciate the ‘honesty’ of the
company in admitting its shortcomings
 The –ve points are relatively unimportant, but
not trivial
 Perceived to be negatively correlated to the
attribute where the product claims superiority
Open ended vs Close ended
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Where the risk of the message being
understood is low, open – ended ads
are likely to to succeed and build
greater brand attitudes
Since consumer generates the beliefs, it
is that much powerful.
“The consumer is not a moron. She’s
your wife.” – David Ogilvy
Inoculative advertising
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Defensive – when leaders are under
threat from upstarts - reactive
Premptive – taking proactive action
before the threat emerges - proactive
Refutational Advertising
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It is a preferred approach to market
situations in which the advertising goal
is to build resistance to attitude change
against competitive attack
Myth vs Reality
Putting the facts straight
Emotional Creative Advertising
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Rely on emotions elicited through ads to
create positive attitudes to product.
Product attributes/benefits, if at all are
referred to indirectly.
Lifestyle advertising (‘Slice of life’ ads)
Endorsement Advertising
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Celebrity
Expert
Satisfied consumer
Announcer
The personality characteristics of the
endorser can get associated with brand
imagery
Status products and snob value
product advertising
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Aspirational
Exclusive
Depends on the target segment
Distraction
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Elements in the ad which distract are
deliberately inserted so that CAs are
not formed to influence attitude