Creative Approaches
What kind of appeal should the
ad have?
Comparative Advertising
Explicit – where the identity of
competitive products are known
Implicit – where the the identity is not
Limitations – consumers don’t like the
hard – sell, sponsor misidentification,
unsuitable for market leaders
2 – sided vs 1 – sided ads
2 sided ads are seen to be more credible
 Consumers appreciate the ‘honesty’ of the
company in admitting its shortcomings
 The –ve points are relatively unimportant, but
not trivial
 Perceived to be negatively correlated to the
attribute where the product claims superiority
Open ended vs Close ended
Where the risk of the message being
understood is low, open – ended ads
are likely to to succeed and build
greater brand attitudes
Since consumer generates the beliefs, it
is that much powerful.
“The consumer is not a moron. She’s
your wife.” – David Ogilvy
Inoculative advertising
Defensive – when leaders are under
threat from upstarts - reactive
Premptive – taking proactive action
before the threat emerges - proactive
Refutational Advertising
It is a preferred approach to market
situations in which the advertising goal
is to build resistance to attitude change
against competitive attack
Myth vs Reality
Putting the facts straight
Emotional Creative Advertising
Rely on emotions elicited through ads to
create positive attitudes to product.
Product attributes/benefits, if at all are
referred to indirectly.
Lifestyle advertising (‘Slice of life’ ads)
Endorsement Advertising
Satisfied consumer
The personality characteristics of the
endorser can get associated with brand
Status products and snob value
product advertising
Depends on the target segment
Elements in the ad which distract are
deliberately inserted so that CAs are
not formed to influence attitude