TBEAR! Creating Effective Body Paragraphs TBEAR Topic with a transition Background Evidence Analysis Return/Respond to the thesis TBEAR is not a formula, but a checklist for you to keep in mind as you write body paragraphs. Remember the common issues? • Students want to let their quotes and research write their papers • Students write what they think without any backup • Students expect the reader to make sense of all the information they’ve just thrown at them. This will help. Body Paragraphs are integrated. This means they weave together the writer’s voice and the voices of the authors or sources the writer wants to include to prove his/her points. (I have something to say, and these voices are here to back me up so you can trust me.) Topic Sentence with Transition Questions to ask: • What is the general statement that organizes this paragraph? • How is it connected to my previous paragraph/idea? Don’t forget the importance of transitions within the paragraph. The reader should not have to make the leap from one idea to the next. Background/Introductions of Evidence Questions to ask • What specific information is leading up to my evidence or examples? • What is needed for the reader to understand my point before I make it? • Where did I get this evidence from? • What gives my evidence credibility? Ways to Introduce Quotations (Capturing the claim) • • • • • • • • • This this article, “____,” X states, “____” (##). As the prominent researcher X puts it, “___” (##). According to X, “___” (##). X argues that, “____” (##). In her book, ____, X maintains that “___” (##). In X’s view, “____” (##). X agrees when she write, “___” (##). X disagrees when he writes, “___” (##). Writing in the magazine _____, X complains that “___” (##). • X emphasizes this when he argues, “____” (##). Effective Verbs for Introducing Summaries and Quotations: Making a claim: Questioning or disagreeing: Expressing agreement: Making recommendations: Argues Asserts Believes Claims Emphasizes Insists Observes Reminds us Reports Suggests Complains Contends Contradicts Denies Questions Refutes Rejects Renounces Acknowledges Admires Agrees Does not deny Endorses Praises Reaffirms Supports Verifies Advocates Calls for Demands Encourages Implores Pleads Recommends Urges Warns Try to use stronger verbs than said, states, or writes! Evidence/Examples Question to ask: • What pieces of evidence or examples should I include to prove my point? Analysis of Examples Questions to ask: • What does the evidence mean? For instance if it includes statistics, what do the statistics show? What do my quotes show/prove? It is your job to do the work for the reader! Important Note About Analysis! • Analysis is not a simple restatement of the evidence put into different words. Effective analysis talks about the evidence, giving it meaning to the reader. Remember- It is your job to create meaning for the reader! This is what analysis is for! Some examples for Explaining Evidence: (not a simplistic, re-wording of the quotes) • In other words, X believes _______________. • In making this comment, X argues _________ ________________. • X’s point is that ______________________. • The essence of X’s argument is that ________ _____________. • These statistics demonstrate the need for ___ _________. • These events illustrate _____________________. Responding/Returning to the Thesis Questions to Ask: • How did this whole paragraph prove my overall point of the paper? Do not simply restate the thesis! Respond to the so what questions that your thesis generates. This is where you make the connection of this paragraph (the subtopic) to the big picture of your whole paper (the main topic). Example Integrated Paragraph Large circus animals are a danger to the public and to entertainers. In some circuses, elephants have gone on rampages and attacked or even killed others. According to a government House Committee website, “In Palm Bay, Florida in 1992, an elephant named Janet went on a rampage while carrying children on her back” (“Captive”). Furthermore, in 2003, there was a well publicized tiger attack of Ray Horn, a trainer for Siegfried and Roy. In both these examples, the animals acted in ways that put trainers and children in danger. This is one of the major reasons we need to stop using large animals as performing pets. Label this example paragraph. As landfills are filled with refuse or closed because of environmental threats, the number of available waste dumping facilities in America dwindles. According to Newsweek magazine, “more that two-thirds of America’s landfills have closed since the late 1970’s” (Anderson 11). By calculating these figures, this will leave a total of twoninths of original waste dumping facilities open after 1994. Communities will have problems with where to ship their trash. Many will have to ship it out-of-state, raising the dumping prices. However, this doesn’t always work out, as one example shows: “In the late 1980’s, the Mobro garbage barge from Islip, New York was turned away from 11 states and 5 counties” (California Department of Conservation 81). Because America cannot deal with these problems for long, we need to vastly increase our recycling facilities. Create your own paragraph. • Thesis: Regulation of cell phone use while driving is needed because drivers using phones are seriously impaired and because laws on negligent and reckless driving are not sufficient to punish offenders. • Evidence: Two-year-old Morgan Pena was killed by a driver distracted by his cell phone. Morgan’s mother, Patti Pena reports that the driver “ran a stop sign at 45 mph, broadsided my vehicle and killed Morgan as she sat in her car seat” (Haley). • Evidence: Corrections officer Shannon Smith, who was guarding prisoners by the side of the road, was killed by a woman distracted by a phone call (Besthoff). • Evidence: John and Carole Hall were killed when a Naval Academy midshipman crashed into their parked car. The driver said in court that when he looked up from the cell phone he was dialing, he was three feet from the car and had no time to stop (Stockwell B8). Is This an Effective Paragraph? Label what elements of TBEAR the paragraph contains, and then comment upon the positives and the negatives of this paragraph. One area of the new brain research reveals that the first three years of a child’s life are crucial to the development of the brain. Proper stimulation of infants can, according to Kotulak, affect the development of language, vision, brain power, aggression, emotions, touch, and education (9-11). An editorial in the New York Times states that the importance of early stimulation– to promote the healthy brain development in children– is a compelling argument for the expansion of supports for new parents and of quality child care programs” (“Nurturing”). North Carolina, Vermont, Colorado, and Ohio are implementing programs to offer support services to families with young children (“Nurturing”). Positives: Negatives: How do all of these helpful writing techniques that I’ve learned fit together in a body paragraph? Jane Schaefer (2-chunk paragraph) TS Topic Sentence CD Concrete Detail 1-Chunk CM Commentary CM Commentary CD Concrete Detail 1-Chunk CM Commentary CM Commentary CS Concluding/Closing Sentence Quotation Sandwich Background Quote Analysis TBEAR Topic with a Transition Background Evidence Analysis Background Quote Analysis Background Evidence Analysis Respond/Return to thesis • To analyze is to: dissect, examine, investigate, break down, take apart, interpret, and determine the essential features of. • Analysis is: insight, interpretation, inference, evaluation, explication and reflection. • Questions that prompt analysis: Why is this important? Why does this matter to my Thesis? What does this CD/quote/evidence show or prove? SO WHAT?