PROFILES - Tallinn workshop 22-23 May 2011
Reflection
Rachel Mamlok-Naaman
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
1
The current reform in science education
is characterized by:
* The development of new science curricula
*The professionalization of science teachers
Content knowledge, Curriculum knowledge,
knowledge of science teaching and learning
theory
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
2
The Professional Development Standards
describe the criteria for the preparation and
ongoing opportunities that teachers must have
to gain and maintain the knowledge base and
skills, and to provide the learning opportunities
for students that the teaching standards define.
Bybee (1995)
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
3
Planning for professional development should
consist of a combination of strategies in order
to form a unique design
Action Research
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
4
Why?
· Teachers are intelligent, inquiring individuals
with important expertise and experiences.
· By contributing to or formulating their own
questions teachers grow professionally.
· Teachers are motivated to use effective practices
when they are investigating the results of their action
in the classroom.
Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love, & Stiles (1998)
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
5
How should we strive at accomplished teaching?

Accomplished teaching should always occur simultaneously with
reflection, in order to improve the teaching strategy.

It should be followed by protocols assembled in a portfolio, which
can be used to demonstrate evidence-based accomplished practice in
science teaching, in an effort to achieve more effective teaching.

The portfolio should document the activities, interactions, and
behavior in the chemistry laboratory where inquiry-type experiments
are implemented. It can be viewed as a systematic and organized
collection of evidence used to monitor the growth of a learner's
knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific content area.
6
Action Research
*The teachers select teaching problems in their
own teaching environment and investigate them.
*The investigators are also the customers.
Therefore, they can draw conclusions and apply
them in class.
*This kind of research is usually done in
collaboration between colleagues, and it endorses
team work.
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Action Research
*Inquiry into their teaching and their
students‘ learning in their own classroom.
*Teachers research their own practice of
teaching.
Feldman & Minstrel (2000)
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
8
Action Research
*To try to find out what is actually going on.
*To monitor and thereby formatively
influence the direction of new developments.
*To evaluate what is already taking place.
Lewis and Munn (1987)
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
9
Action Research - Why?
*Scientists from academic institutions are usually
unfamiliar with the “culture” and atmosphere in
class.
*Academic research is usually performed in a
traditional manner.
*The teachers take interest in the individual
rather than in the class.
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
10
The program
*Twenty-two high-school chemistry teachers
*Weekly meetings at the National Center
for Chemistry Teachers
*The Action Research workshop was part of
the program and consisted of eight meetings
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
11
The objectives of the workshop:
1. To use Action Research as a tool for the professional
development of the chemistry teachers.
2. To encourage the creation of a professional
community of chemistry teachers.
3. To establish a leading–teachers’ team that
will perform Action Research with teachers.
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
12
The teachers:
22 teachers
At least 10 years of experience
At least a B.Sc. in chemistry and
twelve teachers had an even higher
academic degree
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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The main emphasis of the program
was in three domains:
Content knowledge
Curriculum development
Pedagogical content knowledge
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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The Workshop Syllabus
*Action research principles
*Qualitative research approach
*Methodology (rationale for choosing a subject
for the research; defining a meaningful research
question; research tools and data collection; data
analysis…)
*Reflection on each of the stages
*Written reports
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
15
The Various Stages of Action Research
2. Planning
the research
3. Data
collecting
and analyzing
1. Identification
4.
Implementing
the change
of the problem
and selecting a
research
question
6.
Evaluating
and
reflecting
5. Data
collecting
and analyzing
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Examples of the research questions
Pedagogical
What will happen to my students’
understanding if I quicken my teaching pace?
Which teaching strategy is more effective for
problem solving regarding “Proteins”: graphic
demonstrations or table presentation?
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Affective
How do alternative assessment methods influence
students’ attitudes toward chemistry studies?
What is the impact of integrating group work,
using technology tools on the chemistry
classroom environment?
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
18
Behavioral
What is more effective: presentation of test
corrections or having the students work on
them in class?
Will the changes implemented in the classroom
motivate and improve the non-science-oriented
students’ behavior in the science class?
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Cognitive
How can the teacher cope with students’
difficulties in understanding the subject
“chemical equilibrium”?
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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The case study
Research question
Will the changes implemented in the classroom
motivate and improve the non-science-oriented
students’ behavior in the science class?
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Research Tools Developed by the
Teachers
Semi-structured interviews
A questionnaire consisting of eight
open-ended questions
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Categorization techniques (for the
qualitative data) recommended by Shkedi
(2003):
(1) Categorizing each interview by its content.
(2) Developing more general categories
across the interviews.
(3) Mapping all interviews according to the
chosen domain.
)4)Proposing assertions based on the accumulated
data, which will contribute to a better
understanding of the teachers’ professional
development .PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
23
Teachers’ reflections
Categorization of “change”
1. Enactment followed by reflection
2. Being a member of a professional
community
3. Having contact with science teaching
experts
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
24
Enactment followed by reflection
"I certainly think that I will use Action
Research tools in my teaching. This year I
taught chemistry by the inquiry approach and
the students were already used to the group
that they had experienced last year. Moreover,
I assessed the change in my teaching strategy,
using the tools that I had experienced within
the Action Research workshop."
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
25
Being a member of a professional
community
"During the workshop meetings we
consulted each other; we kept contact
through email and exchanged information
and ideas. For instance, the discussions in
the workshop helped me define my Action
Research question. I presented my project
to the group and I received meaningful
feedback."
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
26
Team work
“Our teamwork in school was definitely
influenced by my activities in the workshop, I
instructed a member of our team who did not
participate in the workshop, and this year we
are working together and teaching in the same
chemistry courses.”
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
27
Having contact with science teaching
experts
“I think that without the close contact and
the instruction of the coordinators, I would
not have been able to conduct an Action
Research study. I was a science researcher
before and I had to change the way I think.
It took me some time to understand the
research methodology, but through the
workshop I developed it.”
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Summary
The teachers experienced a new process
in their for professional development
*Obtained new insights regarding their
teaching
*Were able to improve and promote their
classroom instruction
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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*The teachers started to investigate their
own work and to explore systematically
how their students learn the subject matter
*The collaboration between the teachers in
the group was fruitful and promoted their
practical knowledge and teaching strategies.
*The teachers started to develop necessary
leadershipPROFILES
skills.meeting, Talline, May
2011
30
*The teachers learned to better understand
their students and how they think and learn
*The teachers enhanced their professional
esteem and shared their experiences with
their colleagues
*The teachers successfully implement
changes in the classroom
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
31
The teachers worked on several aspects of
their practice and selected research
questions from several domains:
Pedagogical
Affective
Behavioral
Cognitive
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
32
Action Research - a tool for the
professional development of teachers
Provides an environment of:
*Support - regarding its methodology,
procedures, and activities (designing tools,
collecting data, analyzing, and interpreting
the results, applying the findings in the science
classroom, etc)
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
33
Action Research - a Tool for the
Professional Development of Teachers
*Collegiality
*Collaboration with professional
researchers
Encourages teachers to reflect on
their practice
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
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Thank you!
PROFILES meeting, Talline, May
2011
35
‫הערכת עבודה על מדען‬
‫רמות‬
‫ביצוע‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫גבוהה‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫בינונית‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫נמוכה‬
‫קריטריונים‬
‫רקע קצר על‬
‫התקופה‬
‫אפיון התקופה‬
‫כולל את כל‬
‫יכולת אפיון התקופה ההיבטים ומתאר‬
‫מבחינה מדעית‬
‫תמונה שלמה‬
‫טכנולוגית וחברתית‬
‫אחד הגורמים‬
‫חסר‪ ,‬התמונה‬
‫המוצגת חלקית‬
‫התייחסות רק‬
‫לחלק המדעי‬
‫‪...‬‬
‫הערכה‬
‫רמות‬
‫ביצוע‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫גבוהה‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫בינונית‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫נמוכה‬
‫קריטריונים‬
‫תיאור עבודתו‬
‫המדעית‬
‫יכולת הניתוח של‬
‫הייחודיות של‬
‫עבודת המדען‬
‫המסוים ותרומתה‬
‫למדע ולחברה‬
‫ניתוח הייחודיות‬
‫של עבודת המדען‬
‫ניתוח חלקי בלבד‬
‫ותרומתה למדע‬
‫ולחברה‪ ,‬שלמים‬
‫תיאור התגליות‬
‫השונות בלבד כפי‬
‫שמובא במקורות‬
‫השונים ללא‬
‫סינתזה ביניהם‬
‫‪...‬‬
‫רמות‬
‫ביצוע‬
‫הערכה‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫גבוהה‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫בינונית‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫נמוכה‬
‫קריטריונים‬
‫סדר‪ ,‬ארגון‬
‫מבנה העבודה‪,‬‬
‫עבודה שכוללת את‬
‫כל הסעיפים‬
‫שהוגדרו במטלה‪,‬‬
‫הצגת הרעיונות‬
‫ברצף הגיוני‬
‫העבודה כוללת‬
‫את כל הסעיפים‬
‫שהוגדרו במטלה‪,‬‬
‫הרעיונות מוצגים‬
‫ברצף הגיוני‪,‬‬
‫ציטוט נכון של‬
‫מקורות בגוף‬
‫העבודה‬
‫רצף רעיונות לא‬
‫מסודר‪ ,‬התשובות‬
‫לנקודות שהוצגו‬
‫ללא בניית‬
‫הקשרים‬
‫עבודה שאיננה‬
‫כוללת את כל‬
‫הסעיפים‬
‫‪...‬‬
‫רמות‬
‫ביצוע‬
‫קריטריונים‬
‫רשימת‬
‫מקורות‬
‫הצגה נכונה של‬
‫רשימת מקורות‬
‫הערכה‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫גבוהה‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫בינונית‬
‫רשימה מלאה של‬
‫כל המקורות‬
‫רשימה חלקית‬
‫שצוטטו בעבודה‪.‬‬
‫חסרים מקורות‬
‫סדר אלפביתי‪,‬‬
‫שצוטטו בעבודה‬
‫הוספת תאריך‬
‫וכד'‬
‫רמת ביצוע‬
‫נמוכה‬
‫חסרים מקורות‬
‫והמקורות רשומים‬
‫לא נכון‬
Rubrics given to the students for
”Critical reading of scientific articles”
Instructions
Accomplished
Developing
Beginning
5 points
3 points
1 point
Identify at least five
Identification and
Identification
Identification
scientific concepts
explanation of at
and explanation
and explanation
whose meaning you do
least five scientific
of at least five
of less than five
not know. Use reference
concepts that are
scientific
scientific
books including
new to the student,
concepts that are concepts that are
dictionaries. Indicate the
indicating the
new to the
new to the
reference of each
reference to each
student, without
student, and lack
explanation.
explanation.
indicating the
references to
reference to each each
explanation.
explanation.
Rubrics given to the students for
Instructions
Developing
”Critical readingAccomplished
of scientific
articles” Beginning
5 points
Compile
raise
that The questions are The
questions
criticism
3 points
of
the formulated clearly,
are
1 point
questions The
questions
formulated are
not
link the article’s clearly, link the formulated
article’s contents:
*The questions should be contents with other article’s contents clearly, do not
formulated clearly
fields
of with other fields link the article’s
*The questions should link knowledge studied of
knowledge contents
the article’s contents with in class, and the studied in class, other
with
fields
of
other fields of knowledge answers appear in but the answers knowledge
studied in class.
*The
answers
appear in the article.
the article.
should
do not appear in studied in class,
the article.
and the answers
do not appear in
the article.
Rubrics given to the students for
Instructions
Developing
”Critical readingAccomplished
of scientific
articles”Beginning
5 points
Answer
the
3 points
All the questions 75%
1 point
of
the 50%
of
the
questions that you
that the student questions that questions that
compiled:
compiled
precise,
answers.
Use
complete
are the
student the
answered clearly compiled
and precisely.
answered
clearly
precisely.
student
are compiled
are
answered
and clearly
precisely.
and
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מצגת של PowerPoint - Department of Science Teaching