Treaty of Versailles
Paris Peace Conference 1919
“Big Three”
Britain - David Lloyd-George
France - Georges Clemenceau (the Tiger)
USA - Woodrow Wilson
Italy - Vittorio Orlando
Woodrow Wilson
wanted to prevent another
world war
Fourteen Points
self-determination
did not want to leave
Germany craving revenge
Fourteen Points
point 14 called for the creation of the
League of Nations
self-determination
new countries were to be created
along ethnic lines
Poland
Austria-Hungary
Yugoslavia
David Lloyd-George
to maintain Britain’s naval
supremacy
public pressure to punish
Germany (effect of
wartime propaganda)
Many in Britain (having
seen their husbands, sons
and friends killed in the
war) wanted revenge.
A popular saying was
"Squeeze them until the
pips squeak".
Georges Clemenceau
“the Tiger”
to guarantee
France’s security
with a buffer zone
between Germany
and France
land
reparations ($)
Vittorio Orlando
land from AustriaHungary
reparations ($)
Germany lost...
1/8 of her land
6,000,000 people
all her colonies
Alsace-Lorraine
Saar Basin
Rhineland
Polish Corridor
Germany also lost...
65% iron ore
45% coal
72% zinc
57% lead ore
15% agriculture
10% manufacturing plants
25% rubber supply
Germany also lost...
airforce
navy (scuttled)
army (except 100,000 troops)
Germany also lost...
government -- the Weimar Republic
replaced the previous government
Germany also lost…$$$
reparation payments were set at
$33,000,000,000
War Guilt Clause
Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany took responsibility for
starting WWI and had to pay for all
damage
reparation payments were set at
33 billion dollars
The United States
did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles
they did not want to be the world’s
policeman
German reaction...
Why were Germans unhappy with the
Treaty of Versailles?
German reaction to Treaty of
Versailles
Unrepresented
Not allowed to join League of
Nations
Forced to accept terms - diktat
Angry with armed forces reductions
Injustice - War guilt, loss of land etc
Reparations - set too high
Clemenceau, the
Vampire
Interpreting a cartoon
How do I interpret this cartoon?
1.
Context – what was
happening at the time?
2.
Content – what is
happening in the
cartoon?
3.
Comment – what is the
meaning of the
cartoon?
Context – what was happening at the time?
•
Germany had just been defeated
in WWI.
•
The Treaty of Versailles was
signed in1919.
•
It had been written by the ‘Big
Three’ and imposed on Germany.
•
Clemenceau wanted to ruin
Germany
•
The Treaty blamed Germany for
the war
•
The Treaty made her pay
‘reparations’ for ALL the damage.
•
Germany lost lots of land.
•
Germany lost her armed forces.
•
The Germans hated the Treaty.
Content – what is happening in the picture?
A young girl, beautiful but
weak
An evil-looking
vampire...
… which is sucking the
girl’s blood
Weapons laid aside.
Two bats outside the
window – more
vampires.
The window is open – the
curtains are blowing.
Comment – what is the meaning of the picture?
• Germany
Two more bats
• Clemenceau
Window open
Vampire
Sucking
blood
weakened
girl
• Taking reparations
• Germany’s army had
been disbanded by the
Treaty of Versailles.
• Britain and America
• Germany is helpless
to defend herself.
Discarded weapons
This cartoon was
made in 1920
Think:
1. How old would a
child born in 1919 be
by 1940?
2. What is this
cartoonist suggesting
about the Treaty of
Versailles?
• 1. List the New nations of Europe post WW I
Questions
• 2. Who were the Big Four? What were the aims of each one?
• 3. List seven territories that changed hands after WW I
• 4. How did the aims of Wilson conflict with the aims of the other victorious European leaders?
• 5. What does self-determination mean? Give an example of how it was applied both positively
and negatively.
• 6.
• 7.
•
•
•
•
• 8.
• 9.
How did Wilson hope to guarantee world peace?
Note how the treaty affected:
German military
German territory
German economy
German colonial possessions
Define Article 231, Reparations, War Guilt
Why did the USA fail to ratify the Treaty of Versailles?
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treaty of versailles