Treaty of Versailles Paris Peace Conference 1919 “Big Three” Britain - David Lloyd-George France - Georges Clemenceau (the Tiger) USA - Woodrow Wilson Italy - Vittorio Orlando Woodrow Wilson wanted to prevent another world war Fourteen Points self-determination did not want to leave Germany craving revenge Fourteen Points point 14 called for the creation of the League of Nations self-determination new countries were to be created along ethnic lines Poland Austria-Hungary Yugoslavia David Lloyd-George to maintain Britain’s naval supremacy public pressure to punish Germany (effect of wartime propaganda) Many in Britain (having seen their husbands, sons and friends killed in the war) wanted revenge. A popular saying was "Squeeze them until the pips squeak". Georges Clemenceau “the Tiger” to guarantee France’s security with a buffer zone between Germany and France land reparations ($) Vittorio Orlando land from AustriaHungary reparations ($) Germany lost... 1/8 of her land 6,000,000 people all her colonies Alsace-Lorraine Saar Basin Rhineland Polish Corridor Germany also lost... 65% iron ore 45% coal 72% zinc 57% lead ore 15% agriculture 10% manufacturing plants 25% rubber supply Germany also lost... airforce navy (scuttled) army (except 100,000 troops) Germany also lost... government -- the Weimar Republic replaced the previous government Germany also lost…$$$ reparation payments were set at $33,000,000,000 War Guilt Clause Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles Germany took responsibility for starting WWI and had to pay for all damage reparation payments were set at 33 billion dollars The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles they did not want to be the world’s policeman German reaction... Why were Germans unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles? German reaction to Treaty of Versailles Unrepresented Not allowed to join League of Nations Forced to accept terms - diktat Angry with armed forces reductions Injustice - War guilt, loss of land etc Reparations - set too high Clemenceau, the Vampire Interpreting a cartoon How do I interpret this cartoon? 1. Context – what was happening at the time? 2. Content – what is happening in the cartoon? 3. Comment – what is the meaning of the cartoon? Context – what was happening at the time? • Germany had just been defeated in WWI. • The Treaty of Versailles was signed in1919. • It had been written by the ‘Big Three’ and imposed on Germany. • Clemenceau wanted to ruin Germany • The Treaty blamed Germany for the war • The Treaty made her pay ‘reparations’ for ALL the damage. • Germany lost lots of land. • Germany lost her armed forces. • The Germans hated the Treaty. Content – what is happening in the picture? A young girl, beautiful but weak An evil-looking vampire... … which is sucking the girl’s blood Weapons laid aside. Two bats outside the window – more vampires. The window is open – the curtains are blowing. Comment – what is the meaning of the picture? • Germany Two more bats • Clemenceau Window open Vampire Sucking blood weakened girl • Taking reparations • Germany’s army had been disbanded by the Treaty of Versailles. • Britain and America • Germany is helpless to defend herself. Discarded weapons This cartoon was made in 1920 Think: 1. How old would a child born in 1919 be by 1940? 2. What is this cartoonist suggesting about the Treaty of Versailles? • 1. List the New nations of Europe post WW I Questions • 2. Who were the Big Four? What were the aims of each one? • 3. List seven territories that changed hands after WW I • 4. How did the aims of Wilson conflict with the aims of the other victorious European leaders? • 5. What does self-determination mean? Give an example of how it was applied both positively and negatively. • 6. • 7. • • • • • 8. • 9. How did Wilson hope to guarantee world peace? Note how the treaty affected: German military German territory German economy German colonial possessions Define Article 231, Reparations, War Guilt Why did the USA fail to ratify the Treaty of Versailles?