Background 1300-1600 What was the Renaissance? ○ resurgence of learning based on classical sources (Greeks) and gradual but widespread educational reform What was the Reformation? ○ Questioning of the church and beliefs (Martin Luther- 95 thesis) Main Idea Enlightenment: scientists and thinkers created GREAT changes in science, the arts, government, and religion. New ideas from the Enlightenment would help lead to the American Revolution. Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543. Scientific Revolution Middle Ages: Europeans followed what the Greeks, Romans, or Bible said about the physical world Thought earth was the center of the universe mid-1500s, scientists began to question accepted beliefs out of curiosity Discovery of new lands with new plants and animals raised even more curiosity! (what was this age called?) Description: created new theories based on: 1. Willingness to question old beliefs 2. Observation 3. Experimentation Significance at the end! Philosopher Group Activity Read about your Philosopher in your book and then the handout as a group Create a 2 minute speech on: Biography: Where was the philosopher born? What was his upbringing? What was his job? Where did he study? What book did he write? Philosophical Ideas: Did this political thinker think people could govern themselves? Is humankind basically good or bad? What, if any, are the underlining ideas behind this person’s thinking? Beliefs in government: What did this thinker believe is the best form of government? Did this thinker contribute any new political ideas? Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus: discovered the earth revolved around the sun like the rest of the planets and the moon around the earth Feared attack so did not publish till his death! (Significance on next page) Galileo Galilei: made several discoveries that disproved several ancient beliefs Created one of the 1st telescopes to study planets Findings went against the church and was forced to deny his findings about the planets’ surfaces His ideas still spread! Theories Copernicus Significance: Before: Geocentric: Earth was center of the universe After: Heliocentric: Sun was the center of the universe and earth and the other planets revolved around it. (Copernicus) Scientific Method New interest in the physical world lead to a new approach in exploration Created by Descartes + Bacon 1. Asked a question 2. Form a hypothesis/ Attempt to answer 3. Perform experiment 4. Use results to prove or change hypothesis Isaac Newton Law of Gravity Used mathematics to show the motion of the planets had the same impact on humans on earth every object in universe attracts every other object New Inventions Emerge! Microscope: allowed to see creatures to small for the naked eye to see Weather tools: barometer and thermometer New instruments lead to better observations, new discoveries Scientific Revolution Significance: Rejection of ancient accepted beliefs, went against the church, and found new ways to study science using the scientific method! Scientific Method became a new philosophy used all over the world and still today! Background The scientific revolution encouraged a new way of thinking. Scholars and Philosophers began to question: Religion Government Education Economics (Institutions of Society) Why is it call the age of Enlightenment? It was a period of new intellectual philosophies that stressed reason, thought, and the power of individuals to solve problems No longer just accepted beliefs, they wanted evidence for the actions of the institutions of society Also known as the age of reason! Significance: Changed the way people viewed society and would lead to several political revolutions Old School vs. New School Hobbes (absolute power) vs. Locke (natural rights) A monarch’s rule is justified by divine right A government’s power comes from the consent of the governed Government Philosophers Thomas Hobbes (Social Contract) Document: Leviathan Dealt with human nature Discussed the relationship between citizens and their government Believed people give up some of their rights in exchange for law and order (rights for security) Significance: His Ideal Government was an Absolute Monarchy: a ruler that had total power and keep citizens under control. Government Philosophers John Locke (Natural Rights) Document: Two Treaties of Government Locke disagreed with Hobbes!!! Positive view of human nature Believed all people are born free and equal with the natural rights of life, liberty, and property Unlike Hobbes: Locke believed government existed to protect these natural rights and if they failed to do so the citizens should overthrow their government Philosophers of Reason Voltaire Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and speech I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” Montesquieu Separation of powers: split up power instead of allowing a absolute ruler to call all of the shots Checks and Balances: Each branch should have a power check on the other branch to limit their power Philosophers of Reason Rousseau Human Freedom Promoted a society where all people were equal “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains” Women in the Enlightenment Male philosophers spoke of equal rights but left out women! “All men are born free” How did women all of a sudden become born slaves? Mary Wollstonecraft Argued that women, like men, should receive an education Sec.3 Spread of Enlightenment Main Idea: monarchs (leaders) who accepted the new reforms tried to start ruling justly (fairly) Salons: no not hair salons but social gatherings where philosophers, scientists, and others got together to discuss ideas Combine their ideas to create the Encyclopedia: banned by the church at first Changes in Music and Art Neoclassical: art that combined the styles of Greece and Rome (stressed order and simplicity Classical Music (lighter and elegant) and the Novel become popular Enlightened Despot Monarchs who embraced Enlightenment Catherine the Great of Russia ○ Tried to embrace enlightenment but met resistance ○ Actually ends up giving nobles more power instead! ○ Significance: Tried to reform but failed Frederick the Great of Prussia ○ Supported Religious Freedom ○ Improved Education ○ Reformed the Justice System ○ Did not end serfdom: peasants remained slaves to landowners (issues dealing with equality) ○ Significance: Made modern reforms Sec.4 The American Revolution Main Idea: Enlightenment ideas helped spur the American colonies to shed British rule and create a new nation!!! Main Theme of Enlightenment Change the relationship between the citizens and their government We’re tired of being treated unfairly under Absolute Rule!!!!! Background Colonists began to see themselves less and less as British subjects and became angry with the way Britain was trying to control them. Actions by Britain lead to revolution Causes of the Revolution High Taxes 1. Britain began to tax the colonies to help pay for their costly wars causing outrage Colonies had never been taxed by the mainland before and felt their rights were being broken 2. Boycotts Boycotted (would not buy) British goods in response to the taxes Hurts Britain’s economy and they removed the tax 3. Enlightenment ideas create the spread of the desire for independence Declaration of Independence July 1776: Announced their independence to Britain through the Declaration of Independence that contained ideas from enlightenment philosophers! American Revolution: Were able to successfully overcome the power British Army (David vs. Goliath) Americans Create a Republic Checks and balances (Montesquieu) Each branch prevented the other from abusing power Federal System Power is divide between the state and national governments Bill of Rights Ten amendments added to the constitution protecting basic rights ○ Locke, Voltaire Impact of American Revolution Important!!!! The combination of the enlightenment and the success of the American Revolution lead to 19th century revolutions in Latin America Who Do You Think Believed This? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Humans are naturally selfish Government is necessary to keep order Without government, the world would be chaotic Giving up some of your rights in exchange for law and order sounds like a good idea The purpose of government is to protect the citizens’ rights If the people do not agree with the government, then the people have the right to rebel and demand change. Who Do You Think Believed This? 7. It is important the power is separated and not given to one person 8. Humans are naturally good 9. All people should be free and equal, without social classes and social hierarchies 10. People know how best to govern their own affairs, not the government.