The Enlightenment
2 Questions:

1) Is man good or is man evil? Explain, give
examples

Do not say both
2) Attempt to explain this quote
“Man is born free but everywhere else
he is in chains”
Enlightenment


just after Scientific Revolution
People begin to reevaluate aspects of society



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Economics
Religion
Education
Government
Enlightenment Definition


Enlightenment (mid 1700s) - an intellectual
movement that stressed reason and thought
and the power of individuals to solve
problems.
Also known as Age of Reason
Two Views on Government


Thomas Hobbes- Leviathan 1651
John Locke- Two Treatises on Government
Locke
Hobbes
Hobbes
Believed all humans
were naturally selfish
and wicked



Had witnessed this
during English Civil War
Without government,
man would be in
consistent war with one
another leading to
solitary, poor, short lives
Hobbes
In order to escape this,
people must enter into a
SOCIAL CONTRACT
with a ruler in exchange
for law and order.



This would allow people
not to act on own self
interest and give ruler total
power.
In your own words, what
does this mean?
John Locke- Natural Rights
Believed people could learn from
experience and were reasonable

Believed people were naturally good and could
govern themselves


Against an absolute monarchy
Believed in NATURAL RIGHTS

Life, Liberty, and Property


Where have you seen this before?
Locke
Believed a government’s purpose is to
protect these rights and if a government
does not, the people have the right to
overthrow it


Rule by popular consent
Basically if a government does
not do what you want it to do,
you have the right to get rid of
it.
Other Enlightenment Philosophers


Voltaire: consistently fought
for tolerance and freedoms
through essays, books, and
philosophy
“I may not agree with a word
you say, but I will defend to
the death your right to say it.”
Other Philosophers

Montesquieu – Separation of Powers
Montesquieu

3 branches of
government

Separation of
powers

Checks and
balances
Montesquieu Continued..

French writer whom believed England
had best government because power
was spread among King and
Parliament
Proposed that the best way to keep a
government from becoming too
powerful was to make sure each side
never had enough
Need each other
- Checks and Balances
Other Philosophers



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Rousseau: he believed the best
government was that formed by
free people.
direct democracy
People give up freedoms for
common good
“Man is born free, everywhere he is
in chains”
A change for Women

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Prior belief: Education for women was to
help them be helpful wives and mothers
Men dominated marriage
Mary Wollstonecraft:
Used reason to make point that women
should be equal
Education will help them become equal
Criticized equality of marriage

If all men are born free, then are all women born
slaves?
So what is so important about the
Enlightenment?
So what is so important about the
Enlightenment?


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Created a greater reliance on logic and reason to
solve problems as opposed to traditional views
People began to not only question government, but
religion more freely
Rise of individualism- people began to use own
reason to determine right and wrong.


Also our role in society
Governmental ideas influenced new nations and
current nations to reconsider government that ruled
them
Enlightened Despots

Monarchs who tried to use Enlightenment
ideas

Still wanted absolute power but tried to
please the people
Fredrick the Great

King of Prussia

Religious freedom

Reduced censorship

Reformed justice
system

Czarina of Russia
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Land reform

Improved education

Expanded the empire

Many of her ideas
never actually
happened
Catherine the Great
Joseph II of Austria

Son of Maria Theresa

Ended Serfdom
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Ended censorship
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Fixed taxes
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Enlightenment - ESM School District