World History
Unit 5
Absolutism to Revolution:
1500-1900
Chapter 22
Enlightenment and Revolution
Section 1
The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution
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Objectives
To list the circumstances that led to the Scientific Revolution.
To summarize the development of the heliocentric theory and
explain why it led to conflict.
To describe the scientific method and show how Bacon and
Descartes advanced it.
To explain Newton’s law of gravity.
To describe the importance of the scientific method in different
fields.
Vocabulary: Scientific Revolution, Nicolaus Copernicus,
heliocentric theory, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, scientific
method, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, Isaac Newton
The Roots of Modern Science
Scientific Revolution
– new way of thinking about the
natural world
• Medieval View
– geocentric theory
– Greeks, Christianity
– observation & questioning
• Arabic translations
• scientific method
– exploration
• new worlds
• new people
– new observations vs. ancient
beliefs
The Scientific Revolution
Astronomy
– Nicolaus Copernicus
• 25 years of study
• heliocentric theory
– sun-centered universe
• published after his death - 1543
– Johannes Kepler - 1601
• mathematician
• Tycho Brahe’s data
– elliptical orbits
• proved Copernicus correct
– Galileo Galilei
• law of the pendulum
• fixed and predictable rates
• Starry Messenger – 1610
– house arrest until 1642
The Scientific Revolution
Scientific Method
– logical procedure for gathering
and testing ideas
– Francis Bacon
• English politician / writer
• critical of Aristotle thinkers
• empiricism
– experimental method
– Rene Descartes
• French mathematician
– analytical geometry
• prove w/ mathematics and logic
• skepticism
– “I think, therefore I am”
The Scientific Revolution
Isaac Newton
– English mathematician/physicist
– law of universal gravitation
• Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo
• single theory of motion
• attraction depends on mass
Scientific Instruments
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microscope, barometer, thermometer
–
Gabriel Fahrenheit vs. Anders Celsius
Medicine
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“On the Fabric of the Human Body” (1543)
Edward Jenner – smallpox vaccine
Chemistry
– Robert Boyle
• founder of modern chemistry
• Boyle’s Law
– volume, temperature, pressure of
gas
The Scientific Revolution
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Objectives
To list the circumstances that led to the Scientific Revolution.
Medieval geocentric view; new discoveries challenge old thinking
To summarize the development of the heliocentric theory and explain why it led
to conflict.
Scientists use observation and math; Galileo’s observations support;
heliocentric ideas conflict teaching of church and state
To describe the scientific method and show how Bacon and Descartes
advanced it.
Logical gathering and testing; Bacon – conclusions based on observations;
Descartes – doubt unless proven by reason
To explain Newton’s law of gravity.
Same physical laws govern earthly and heavenly motions
To describe the importance of the scientific method in different fields.
New tools > precise observations; anatomy > body/disease understanding;
chemistry > understanding of matter
Vocabulary:Scientific Revolution, Nicolaus Copernicus, heliocentric theory,
Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, scientific method, Francis Bacon, Rene
Descartes, Isaac Newton
Chapter 22
Enlightenment and Revolution
Section 2
The Enlightenment in Europe
The Enlightenment in Europe
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Objectives
To explain Hobbe’s and Locke’s views on government.
To list important Enlightenment philosophers and
concepts.
To describe women’s contributions to the Enlightenment.
To explain the impact of the Enlightenment on Western
civilization.
Vocabulary: Enlightenment, social contract, John Locke,
natural rights, philosophe, Voltaire, Montesquieu,
separation of powers, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Mary
Wollstonecraft
The Enlightenment in Europe
Enlightenment
– Age of Reason - 1650s
• Thomas Hobbes
– British political thinker
– humans selfish and wicked
• English Civil War
– social contract
• people give up rights
• law and order
• John Locke
– British political thinker
– humans are reasonable
• Glorious Revolution
– natural rights
– self-government
• life, liberty, and property
The Enlightenment in Europe
Philosophes
– 1750s French social critics
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Voltaire
– satire against church and state
– twice was jailed
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Montesquieu
– political liberty
– “On The Spirit of Laws” - 1748
• separation of powers
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Rousseau
– individual freedom
– civilization corrupts goodness
– “Social Contract”
• direct democracy
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Beccaria
– “On Crimes and Punishment”
• laws for social order
• punishment fits the crime
The Enlightenment in Europe
Women
• Mary Wollstonecraft
– “A Vindication of the Rights of
Women” - 1792
• political participation
• equal education
• salons
– social gatherings
Impact of Enlightenment
– belief in progress
• reason solves social problems
– more secular outlook
• superstition, fear, intolerance
– importance of individual
• government by individuals
The Enlightenment in Europe
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Objectives
To explain Hobbe’s and Locke’s views on government.
Hobbes-people need strong govt. to keep order; Locke-people
have natural ability to govern themselves
To list important Enlightenment philosophers and concepts.
Voltaire-fights intolerance thru writing; Montesquieu-governments
power divided; Rousseau-govt. formed by agreement of free
people; Beccaria-promote criminal justice; Concepts-reason,
nature, happiness, progress, liberty
To describe women’s contributions to the Enlightenment.
Writers argue for more education and equality; ideas spread thru
social gatherings
To explain the impact of the Enlightenment on Western civilization.
Human reason solves social problems; more secular outlook;
importance of individual
Vocabulary: Enlightenment, social contract, John Locke, natural
rights, philosophe, Voltaire, Montesquieu, separation of powers,
Jean Jacques Rousseau, Mary Wollstonecraft
Assessment
1) The Age of Reason
2) He thought humans selfish / wicked
3) Agreement where people give up
rights in exchange for law and order
4) He thought people reasonable with
the ability of govern themselves
5) Name the 3 “natural rights”
6) Term used to describe French social
critics
7) He used satire against the church
and government
8) He believed in separation of powers
9) He argued that civilization corrupts
people’s natural goodness
10) This writer thought men and women
should have equal political rights
1) Enlightenment
2) Thomas Hobbes
3) social contract
4) John Locke
5) life, liberty, and property
6) philosophes
7) Voltaire
8) Montesquieu
9) Rousseau
10) Mary Wollstonecraft
Chapter 22
Enlightenment and Revolution
Section 4
American Revolution:
The Birth of a Republic
The Birth of a Republic
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Objectives
To describe the American colonies in the late
1700s.
To list events that led to the American Revolution.
To explain the Enlightenment’s influence on
American government.
Vocabulary: Declaration of Independence,
Thomas Jefferson, checks and balances, federal
system, Bill of Rights
The Birth of a Republic
King George III - 1760
– Constitutional Monarchy
– American Colonies
• population growth
– 1700: 250K - 1770: 2.15M
• economic prosperity
• new sense of identity
– loyal British subjects
– Navigation Acts - 1660s
• profitable mercantilism
• smuggling
– French and Indian War - 1763
• huge debt
• Stamp Act - 1765
– all printed material
– taxation w/o representation
The Birth of a Republic
Hostility
– ‘Boston Tea Party’ - 1773
• British occupation
– 1st Continental Congress - 1774
• Boston protest
– 2nd Continental Congress - 1775
• Lexington and Concord - Apr 19
• raise an army
Enlightenment Ideals
– same political rights
– broken social contract
– Declaration of Independence - 1776
• Thomas Jefferson
• John Locke’s ideas
The Birth of a Republic
Articles of Confederation - 1781
– 1st U.S. Constitution
– representative republic
• legislature only (Congress)
• no tax or trade power
– Shay’s Rebellion - 1787
Constitutional Convention - 1787
– revise Articles of Confederation
– “2nd American Revolution”
• new system of government
• 3 branches
– checks and balances
• federal system
– Bill of Rights
• individual freedoms
The Birth of a Nation
Objectives
• To describe the American colonies in the late 1770s.
– Huge population growth; Thriving economies; Sense of identity; Limited
trade opportunities; New British taxation
• To list events that led to the American Revolution.
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1765 - Stamp Act -Taxation w/o representation
1773 - Boston Tea Party - trade monopoly
1774 - 1st Continental Congress - Boston protest
1775 - 2nd Continental Congress - discuss next steps
1775 - Lexington and Concord - vote to raise army
• To explain the Enlightenment’s influence on American government.
– Political equality with British
– John Locke’s 1690 Treatise
– Montesquieu’s “Separation of Powers”
• Vocabulary: Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson,
checks and balances, federal system, Bill of Rights
Assessment
1) He was English King in 1760
2) This war left England with huge debt
3) This Act taxed all printed material
4) This 1773 ‘party’ led to British
occupation of Boston
5) 1774 meeting to determine what to
do about Boston occupation
6) While the 2nd Continental Congress
met, fighting broke out here
7) He wrote the Declaration of
Independence
8) His ‘ideas’ were used in the D.O.I.
9) The 1st U.S. Constitution
10) System where each branch of govt.
checks the actions of the others
1) George III
2) French and Indian War
3) Stamp Act
4) Boston Tea Party
5) 1st Continental Congress
6) Lexington and Concord
7) Thomas Jefferson
8) John Locke
9) Articles of Confederation
10) checks and balances
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Enlightenment, social contract, John Locke, natural rights