INTRODUCTION TO GENDER
MAINSTREAMING
Gender, Women and Politics
The National Democratic Institute
INTRODUCTIONS/
GROUND RULES
• Introductions
• Ground Rules
• Ice Breaker Exercise
Image: Khandro Leia Organa
INTRODUCTION TO GENDER
MAINSTREAMING OBJECTIVES
• Understand the basis for/approaches to
promoting gender equality
• Become familiar with the entry points
for/objectives of gender mainstreaming
and strategies and tools
• Practice developing mainstreaming
strategies
INTRODUCTION TO GENDER
MAINSTREAMING TOPICS
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Equality and gender
Evolution of gender mainstreaming
Definition
Strategies/tools
Compensating for inequities
KEY TERMS
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Gender
Mainstream
Gender equality
Inequity
Other terms?
Image: European Institute for Gender Equality
INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORKS
• United Nations international human
rights declarations/covenants
“All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights.”
Photo: UN
RATIONALE FOR GENDER
EQUALITY
• Human rights rationale
• Economic rationale
APPROACHES TO EQUALITY
Formal Equality
• View: Women and men are the same so
treat them the same
• Goal: To achieve equal treatment
APPROACHES TO EQUALITY
Protectionism
• View: Women and men are different so
should be treated differently
• Goal: To protect women
APPROACHES TO EQUALITY
Substantive equality
• View: There are differences in how
women and men experience life and we
should minimize negative effects of this
• Goal: Promote equality of outcomes
SUBSTANTIVE EQUALITY
• Corrective approach
• Equal treatment can reinforce
inequality
• Discrimination and inequality are social
constructs
• Requires proactive measures
• Equality of opportunity, access and
results
EVOLUTION OF GENDER
MAINSTREAMING
Realization that:
• Men and women have different
priorities/constraints and can
contribute to, and be affected
differently by projects
• Failure to address gender issues leads
to inefficient and unsustainable results
and exacerbates inequities
EXAMPLE: WATER PUMPS AND
ICT IN TANZANIA
• Encourage citizens to report broken
water pumps to authorities using SMS
• Anticipated 3,000 SMS but only got 53
• Why?
Photo: Taco Anema, IUCN
EVOLUTION OF GENDER
MAINSTREAMING
• Women IN Development
• Analysis focused on women only
• Programs exclusively for women
Photo: NDI
EVOLUTION OF GENDER
MAINSTREAMING
• Gender AND Development
– Analysis focuses on gender division of
labor, roles and relations
– Aim to reduce gender inequalities
EVOLUTION OF GENDER
MAINSTREAMING
• 1985: Concept first introduced
• 1995: Further developed at UN Fourth
World Conference on Women
• Beijing Platform: “Promote an active
and visible policy of mainstreaming a
gender perspective”
• Gender integration
WHAT IS GENDER
MAINSTREAMING?
• Strategy to ensure women’s and
men’s concerns and experiences are
included in the design,
implementation and evaluation of
policies and programs
• Goal: achieving gender equality
GENDER MAINSTREAMING
ENTRY POINTS
• Institution
• Policy
• Program
Photo: NDI
WHAT IS GENDER
MAINSTREAMING?
– Every policy and activity has a gender
perspective or implication
– Gender analysis improves the
effectiveness of policies and programs
– Needs and rights of all stakeholders are
addressed
GENDER MAINSTREAMING
OBJECTIVES
• Make gender more visible
• Transform institutions
• Ensure that power and resources are
deployed equitably
Photo: NDI
GENDER MAINSTREAMING
MYTHS
• Favors women over men
• Women and men already equal
• Only for policies related to women and
women’s issues
GENDER MAINSTREAMING
CONTINUUM
Gender Aware
Exploitative
Accommodating
Gender Blind
Transformative
GENDER MAINSTREAMING AND
THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
Knowledge
sharing
1. Design
Gendersensitive M&E
4. M&E
Gender
analysis/needs
assessment
Gender expertise
Adequate resources
2. Start-up
Gender
planning
Gender-specific
action/capacity
building
3.
Implementation
GENDER MAINSTREAMING
STRATEGIES/TOOLS
• Involve women and men in
consultations
• Include sex-disaggregated data
• Formulate gender-sensitive and/or
specific objectives, indicators and
activities
GENDER MAINSTREAMING
STRATEGIES/TOOLS
• Strive for gender balance in
staff/experts
• Enable women and men to participate
equally and benefit equally
• Include gender in evaluations
GENDER ANALYSIS
• Can be undertaken at any stage but
most effective if included in design
• Systematic way of analyzing
different roles and impacts
• Asks the “who” questions
• How will this affect women and
men?
GENDER RESPONSIVE
BUDGETING
• Budgeting to account for differing
needs of women and men
• Ensure that resources aren’t being
spent in a discriminatory manner
Photo: Sanja Gjenero for rgbstock.com
COMPENSATING FOR
INEQUITIES
Image: Iris de Caluwe
COMPENSATING FOR
INEQUITIES
• Affirmative action to level the
playing field and compensate for
discrimination
• Additional
resources/training/access
• Gender differences may be
influenced by other structural
differences
EXERCISE: INSTITUTIONAL
MAINSTREAMING
Select an institution and develop strategy
• Areas/methodology for assessment
• Recommended actions
– Policy revisions
– Resources – financial and human
– Training
• M&E
Photo: Amy Hamelin, NDI
EXERCISE: POLICY
MAINSTREAMING
Select a policy and develop strategy
• Areas/methodology for assessment
• Recommended actions
– New/revised policy
– Resources – financial and human
– Training
• M&E
EXERCISE: PROGRAM
MAINSTREAMING
Select a program and develop strategy
• Areas/methodology for assessment
• Program designs
– Activities
– Resources – financial and human
– Training
• M&E
Photo: NDI
INTRO TO GENDER
MAINSTREAMING REVIEW
• “All humans born free and equal”-- yet
women struggle
• Substantive equality
• NOT gender blind
• Mainstream gender throughout project
cycle
• Tools: gender analysis and budgeting
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Sample Presentation - National Democratic Institute