Task 1…
• Complete the previous Injury sheet, it will help you for
the assessment tasks later in the session.
INFLAMMATION
Inflammation is a protective attempt by the body to remove harm and
to initiate the healing process
It occurs within a few minutes to hours of injury
The 5 key characteristics of
inflammation are:
•Pain
•Redness
•Swelling
•Heat
•Immobility (loss of function)
THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
Injury causes tissue damage
The damaged tissue releases chemicals
Blood vessels dilate (widen) allowing increased blood flow to the injured area.
This causes;
HEAT
PAIN
REDNESS
BLEEDING
SWELLING
LOSS
OF
FUNCTION
THE CLOTTING MECHANISM (COAGULATION)
Clotting, also known as “coagulation”, occurs almost immediately after injury to a blood
vessel. It is the process of blood changing from its usual liquid state to a solid form.
There are 3 stages;
•Formation of Prothrombinase
When liquid blood comes into contact with certain molecules (or foreign objects) it stimulates
the formation of an enzyme called Prothrombinase.
•Prothrombin is then converted to Thrombin
The enzyme Prothrominase converts Prothrombin into Thrombin (another enzyme)
•Fibrinogen is converted into Fibrin
Thrombin converts Fibrinogen into Fibrin which forms the tread-like scaffolding structures that
form a clot.
HERE
IS A LINKS TO A VIDEO ANIMATION OF INFLAMMATION
&
COAGULATION WHICH MAY HELP YOUR UNDERSTANDING!
A cartoon animation of the full coagulation process in detail including
all the info you need
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QVTHDM90io
SCAR TISSUE & REMODELLING
A scar is a result of the body's repair mechanism
after injury on many tissues. Scar tissue replaces
normal tissue after it is damaged.
Scar tissue is the formation and laying down of a
protein called “collagen”. This is a fibrous tissue that
replaces the tissue that has been damaged.
It is not as elastic and pliable as skin and muscular
tissue which makes it a lower quality tissue and less
effective and efficient at doing its job.
SPRAINS AND STRAINS
Sprains and Strains are overstretching or tearing of tissue. Sprains involve
ligamentous tissue and strains involve muscular tissue. Both involve pain and
discomfort , deformity, swelling, bruising, impaired movement and loss of
function.
STRAIN
A stretching or tearing of muscle/tendon
SPRAIN
A stretching, or tearing, of one or more ligaments.
Sprains and Strains can be classified as first, second and third degree, depending
on the amount of fibres involved.
GRADES OF INJURY
LIGAMENT SPRAIN
MUSCLE STRAIN
Degree / Severity
Fibre Damage
Signs and Symptoms
Grade I (mild)
few fibres
Minimal discomfort swelling / tenderness
movement slightly impaired / functional.
Grade II (moderate)
many fibres
Significant pain / discomfort / noticeable
swelling / tenderness / impaired
movement / function impaired.
Grade III (severe)
total rupture
Pain / significant swelling / bruising /
tenderness / impaired movement / joint
unstable / loss of function.
HAEMATOMAS (INTER/INTRA)
A haematoma, is a localized collection of blood outside the blood
vessels, usually caused by trauma (in this case a muscle). It is different
from a bruise, which is the spread of blood under the skin in a thin layer.
•There are 2 types of haematoma;
•Intramuscular
This injury only effects the muscle fibre tissue and therefore bleeding
is contained within the sheath that surrounds the muscle. Pressure
within the muscle builds up which can become very painful. The fluid
is unable to escape as the muscle sheath prevents it, acting like a
balloon. Healing takes longer as bleeding stays in one area and has to
be broken down.
You are less likely to see visible bruising.
•Intermuscular
This type of injury includes the muscle and also the muscle sheath and
therefore bleeding is not contained and can spread (for example with
gravity). Initial bleeding can last longer, however recovery is often
faster than intra muscular as the blood and fluids can flow away from
the site of injury.
You are more likely to see bruising.
P3
What you guys can do…
•
Design a leaflet that describes in a informative manner the following points:
·
·
·
Inflammation
The Clotting Mechanism
Scar Tissue
Signs and Symptoms a coach should look out for to identify;
o A sprain
o A strain
•A haematoma
(Including the severity and type grading system)
Download

Scar Tissue & Remodelling