Year 8 The English Civil War King Charles 1 1625-1649 ► What was his family name? ► Who was his father? ► Which religious group did the Pilgrim Fathers belong to? ► Of which Church was Charles the head? King Charles 1 1625-1649 Queen Henrietta-Maria ► Which country did Henrietta Maria come from? ► Which religious group did she belong to? ► Why do you think that she could be unpopular with some people in England? Religious groups. ► ► ► ► Which religious group is shown in this picture? What did they believe in? How can we tell they belong to this group? After reading the sheet, write 4 facts about how this group lived their lives. The Roman Catholics. The previous picture ► Can you identify the picture on the previous page? ► Clue – it is connected with the Vatican City. ► Where is the Vatican City and what is it? ► Who is the most important person in the Vatican City? ► Write 4 facts about the beliefs of Roman Catholics. The Protestants. ► Who is the secular head of the Church of England? ► Who is the spiritual head? (look at the picture) Charles as King ► Which church was Charles head of as king of England? ► What had happened in 1605 which made many people fear Roman Catholics? Arguments with Parliament. ► King James 1 had quarrelled with his parliaments about many things. These included, money, power, religion, Divine Right and favourites. During his reign he gained many enemies. Many of the MPs were Puritans. ► After James’ death, the arguments continued. The Theory of Divine Right. ► What do you understand by this term? ► How would it affect the way in which the monarchs would rule? ► MONEY ► How does the government get money to rule the country? ► How is that money collected? Charles’ Personal Rule 1629-1640 ► Why did Charles decide to rule without a Parliament? ► Could this happen now? ► Explain your answer. ► These 11 years are referred to as years of tyranny by Charles’ enemies and as his Personal Rule by those who supported him The Personal Rule 1629-1640 ► The 2 men who helped to rule during the Personal Rule were ► The Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud. Governing without a PARLIAMENT ► What would be the greatest problems which Charles would face? ► How did Charles raise money? ► Why would these actions upset people? ► The tax which caused most anger was Ship Money Ship Money ► What was Ship money? ► Where was it supposed to be collected from? ► Where did Charles collect this tax? ► Why were people so angry about this? The Bishops’ wars ► Many of the Scottish people belonged to the _____________________ Church. Archbishop _________ tried to force them to use the English _____________ book. ► The Scots refused and there were two wars. As there were no __________ in their church organisation, these wars were known as the ‘________ _________.’ The English lost them and Charles had to call a ___________ to pay for the wars. ► Bishops’ wars; Parliament; Laud; Prayer; Presbyterian; bishops; War is close! ► The Short Parliament did not give Charles what he demanded. ► The Long Parliament, after the Second Bishops’ War made demands and refused to give Charles money. ► Many MPs were Puritans. The Grand Remonstrance ► The MPs drew up a long list of criticisms about Charles. The king had had enough. He decided to get rid of his critics by arresting them in the House of Commons. ► Why do you think that this was not a good idea? The Attempted arrest of the Five Members ► Charles tried to arrest the 5 leading Puritan MPs, Pym, Strode, Hollis, Hampden, Hazelrigg Charles fails! ► What happened to Charles’ popularity after his failure to arrest the 5 MPs? ► Charles left London in January 1642 and would never return again as a free man. ► In AUGUST 1642, Charles set up his royal standard in Nottingham and the Civil War began! Which side would you have joined? ► King’s ► Think side of as many reasons as you can for supporting the king. ► Think of any reasons why you would not support him. ► Parliament’s side ► Why would you support the parliament? ► Why might you be angry with what the parliament had done? The Two sides. ► Cavaliers -King ► Roundheads Parliament - Land changes hands & battles War 1642-1645 ► There were 3 main battles during the Civil War. Name these. ► Why do you think that each side tried to avoid full battles? ► Why was Charles short of money during the war? ► Where did Parliament get money from during the war? From the previous maps, explain how land changed hands during the war. Weapons The New Model Army ► The New Model Army ► An ‘Ironside’ was created by Cromwell and Fairfax. ► It had properly equipped and trained soldiers and they were paid. ► The soldiers were fined for swearing. Charles brought to trial ► This is a picture of King Charles whilst on trial for treason and murder. ► Where was his trial held? ► Who were his ‘judges’? ► How many men tried the king? The King’s trial ► King Charles was tried by a group of _____________ in ___________ ________. ► He was accused of being a ___________ . He was not allowed to ________ in his defence during his trial . He was found _________ and was sentenced to _______. His death warrant was signed by _______ men. They are called regicides (killers of a king). traitor; guilty; 59; commissioners; Westminster hall; death; speak. The Execution of the King -30th January 1649 ► Where did the execution take place? ► Why do you think that there was such a large crowd watching this execution? ► What has happened to the person on the ground at the front of the picture? What happened next? ► No longer a king –who should rule? ► Who had been determined that Charles should be tried? ► What was the name of the parliament which ► had first been called in 1640? Who is this man? Was he a hero or a villain? List some good things which Cromwell did for this country eg helped people who were mentally unwell List some things for which Cromwell can be criticised e.g what happened in Ireland. What positions did Cromwell take? ► This is a portrait of Cromwell. What is he wearing on his head? ► What do you think this means? ► Why do you think That Cromwell did not accept the title of king? Complete the sentences ► Cromwell took the title of ______________ ► He did not take the title of king because ____________________________________ ► When Cromwell died in 1658, his place was taken by ____________________ ► In 1660, Charles 1’s son, ____________ was asked to come to England. He was crowned as _________________ and ruled from 1660-1685. Charles 11 -1660-1685 The Great Plague 1665-numbers of deaths How did the authorities deal with the plague? The Great Fire of London 1666 The area of London destroyed by the fire. The death of Charles- who would succeed? ► Charles did not have any legitimate children and so his brother James inherited the throne. He was unpopular because he was a Roman Catholic. The Glorious Revolution -1688 ► The coronation of William and Mary Why had James been driven out? ► Charles 11 did not have any legitimate children. His brother _______ became king. He was a R______ C________ . He had 2 daughters, M______ and A_______ . He also had a young son and many feared that future kings would be Roman Catholic. ► James was forced to leave the country in 1688 and his daughter M_____ ruled with her husband W___________ . Why was this called the Glorious Revolution? ► Explain which ‘revolution’ has taken place. ► Why was it described as ‘glorious’? ► Consider the drawing of the Bill of Rights – explain why the king is weighed down by the chains. ► Explain how each of those points limited the power of the king. ► Copy the sentences from ‘Why is all this so important - real power’ (Aylett p.54) Queen Anne ► How many pregnancies did she have? ► Who was her father? ► Who inherited the throne after her death? The Hanoverians. ► King George 1 (1714- 1727 ► Where is Hanover? ► Why were there problems when he was king? The Jacobites ► These were the followers of James 11 and they claimed he and his family should rule. The Battle of the Boyne -1690 ► William defeated the Jacobites at this battle in Ireland. The Battle of Culloden Moor 1746 ► ‘Bonny Prince Charlie’ – the last Jacobite claimant to the throne was defeated at the Battle of Culloden Moor in 1746.