Core Hardware Fundamentals
Lesson 2
Component Overview
Identify and describe the purpose of major
system modules.
Identify major system modules specific to
portable systems.
Describe the power on self test (POST)
Describe the role of the operating system in
system startup.
Power warning
Turn off and unplug before removing covers.
Turn off system and device before attaching
Never attach or detach a keyboard with power on.
Never remove display monitor covers.
DIMM module
SIMM module
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
Learning more about the system Basic Input/Output
System (BIOS)
The BIOS is a set of programs stored in read-only memory
(ROM). The BIOS was a socket-mounted ROM chip in early
PCs. The BIOS is soldered onto the motherboard in newer
systems and is not physically replaceable.
The BIOS contains the device driver programs that manage
low-level input and output activity. For example, the BIOS
decodes input from the keyboard as character codes and can
provide simple text output to the video display monitor
The BIOS also contains a set of diagnostic programs that
run each time you start up a PC. These programs are known
collectively as the power on self test (POST).
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
The POST will test most of the critical system
hardware to verify that it is working properly, and will report
any detected errors. Errors are reported as either a series of
tones (beeps) or as numeric or text error messages.
Changes to system hardware or the operating system
sometimes make it Necessary to update the system BIOS. On
older motherboards, this task was performed by physically
replacing the BIOS IC. BIOS updates are performed
electronically on newer motherboards, through update
programs run from floppy disk. This technique is known as a
Flash BIOS update. BIOS updates are discussed in more
detail later in the course.
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) memory
CMOS memory is a special type of low-power static RAM. At this
point, you need not understand what is meant by "static RAM,"
except that memory content is retained as long as power is
applied to the chip that contains the memory . A battery installed
on the motherboard provides the power that allows the CMOS
RAM to retain its contents when the system is turned off.
System configuration information is stored in CMOS RAM. This
information includes the amount of memory installed in the
system, number and type of hard disk drives, enabled or disabled
system ports, and so on. A setup program contained in the
system BIOS is used to update configuration data. You can
launch the setup program during system startup to make
configuration changes.
NOTE: Some system changes will be detected automatically
during system startup. For example, most systems will be
able to detect if additional RAM is installed and detect
the characteristics and capacity of a newly installed hard disk.
You will seldom need to make manual changes to the system
configuration after initial setup, except after some system failures.
Users should be discouraged from entering the BIOS setup
program unless directed by technical support personnel.
Entering CMOS
You can enter a system's CMOS setup at boot time. You must
press a certain key at the correct time during the system's POST.
Some systems require that you press the F2 key at a certain time.
Others require that you press the DELETE key or the F10 key. All
systems will inform you about the proper procedure during the
POST process. Gateway computers require that you press the F1
Nonvolatile storage devices
Nonvolatile devices do not lose data when power is
turned off…..
EIDE (harddrive & CD Rom) and floppy drive Interfaces are
build into most Motherboards
Floppy disk drive- Magnetic Storage
Hard disk drive- Magnetic Storage
CD-ROM- Optical Storage
DVD-ROM- Optical Storage
Tape- Backup storage- Magnetic
Peripheral devices
Keyboard- Output or Input?
Mouse- Output or Input?
Display monitor- Output or Input?
Printer- Output or Input?
Modem- Output or Input?
Peripheral devices
Keyboard- Input
Mouse- Input
Display monitor- Output
Printer- Output
Modem- Output and Input
Boot Process
Power On Self Test (POST)
 Located on ROM BIOS
Operating system load
Advanced Configuration and
power Interface (ACPI)
Power control and management system
designed to help minimize system power
Set of programs stored in nonvolatile
read-only memory (ROM) that
controllow-level input and output activity
and run system diagnostics during
system startup.
A set of integrated circuits that provides
the motherboard support and device
interface circuitry .
Direct Memory Access(DMA)
Memory management method in which
devices can read and write directly to
system memory without going through
the microprocessor.
Enhanced Integrated Device
Electronics (EIDE)
Most commonly used hard disk, CDROM andDVD disk drive interface,
integrated into the motherboard circuitry
as part of the chipset.
Expansion Bus
Motherboard slots into which adapter
boards areInstalled.
Input/Output Address (I/O)
Small area of memory used for
communication between the
microprocessor and peripheral devices,
including adapter boards and standard
serial and parallel ports.
Interrupt Request (IRQ)
Signal used for controlled
communications between the
microprocessor and other devices
installed on the motherboard.
Industry Standard
Architecture (ISA)
Standard 16-bit expansion bus based on
the original ffiM PC AT bus structure and
still in common use.
Conductive device used to complete the
circuit between exposed pins and used
for device Configuration.
Terms 2