Overhead Projector/Document Camera
Obsolete/Emerged
Carol Deuling-Ravell
EDUC8848
11/20/11
Overhead Projector Tetrad
Enhances:
Obsoletes:
•communication to large
group of students
•allows notes to be used
multiple times without
rewriting each time
•having to write on the chalk
board
Retrieves/Rekindles:
Reverses:
•classroom movies and
filmstrips
•systems that will project from
other devices
•projection devices that will not
require special pens and plastic
sheets
Analysis of 6 Forces and Overhead
Projectors
Evolutionary Technology
Rhymes of History
• Overhead projectors are
evolved from opaque projectors
(ehow, n.d.), opaque projectors
were hot and would sometimes
catch the original paper on fire.
In the 1940’s overhead
projectors were used by the
police to draw criminal profiles
(xtimeline, n.d.). Modern
overhead projectors came out
of 3M and were not received
with excitement until a sales
campaign focusing on teachers
and the benefits in the
classroom (xtimeline, n.d.).
• Overhead projectors initially
entered the market in the
1940’s with the military, which
used them to train large groups
of soldiers (xtimeline, n.d.). The
modern overhead projectors
transitioned into the classroom
in the early 1960’s where
teachers were able to use it to
teach large groups of students
without having to write
everything on the chalkboard in
real time. Teachers were able to
create their notes ahead of class
time on the transparency and
use them again if needed.
Analysis of 6 Forces and Overhead
Projectors
Science Fiction
Disruptive Technologies
• In the 1940’s science fiction did
not really influence the
development of the overhead
projector, rather it had a difficult
time keeping up with reality
(magicdragon.com, n.d.). Science
fiction movies of the 1940’s
focused more on the horror
aspects with Boris Karloff and like
actors rather than looking to the
future. In the 1960’s science
fiction focused on space travel
(magicdragon.com, n.d.).
Imagining how people could
survive in space did not leave
much space for science fiction to
look at how to project images on
the wall.
• Overhead projectors evolved over
time from the epicscope to
opaque projectors to overhead
projectors. Overhead projectors
were not a disruptive technology
that appeared suddenly.
Analysis of 6 Forces and Overhead
Projectors
Increasing Returns
Red Queens
• Overhead projectors did not
have a competing technology
that encouraged consumer
choice.
• Overhead projectors evolved
out of previous technology, it
did not have a competing
technology that pushed its
continued development.
Transitioning from Old to New
• Sally Probst
– HS Family
Consumer Skills
Teacher
• Uses overhead
projector and
document camera in
her classroom –
each for a specific
purpose
Ease of Using a Document Camera
• Teresa Boyer
– HS Special Education
Teacher
• Uses classroom
projection every day
in every class
Document Camera Tetrad
Enhances:
Obsoletes:
•teacher ability to share
notes with a large
number of students
use of handwritten or
typed notes
•the overhead
projector
•the use of special
supplies
Retrieves/Rekindles:
•projection systems
requiring special supplies
Reverses:
•Smartboard projection
systems
•Visual transfer of notes
from paper to individual
monitor systems
Analysis of 6 Forces and Document
Cameras
Evolutionary Technology
Rhymes of History
• The document camera is in the
evolutionary tract of the
overhead projector. The
document camera allows users
to display 3D objects and to
display documents without
having to use a clear
transparency. The document
camera is not dependent on
the ambient light in the room
being dim rather it displays its
material clearly. Already
manufacturers are releasing
document cameras that are
small enough to be held in the
hand.
• The document camera
continues to allow documents
to be viewed by a large group
of people. It also allows the
display of 3D objects. The
document camera has a rich
history in visual media
equipment like film projectors
and cameras.
Analysis of 6 Forces and Document
Cameras
Science Fiction
Disruptive Technologies
• Again science fiction is focused
on space travel and how life
will be in the future. Most of
this genre did not look at how
education and presenting to
large groups will be portrayed.
• At this point document
cameras are the easiest option
for displaying written and 3D
objects to large groups.
Analysis of 6 Forces and Document
Cameras
Increasing Returns
Red Queens
• At the time of its release the
document camera did not have
a competing technology other
than the overhead projector,
which had been available for a
long time. Overhead projectors
continue to be competition for
document cameras because of
their low cost. A projector of
some sort must be purchased
with the document camera for it
to be effective, which can add
considerably to the cost. While
an overhead projector can be
purchased as a standalone piece
and even its light bulbs are
relatively inexpensive.
• Wolfvision and Elmo, Ltd.
released the document camera
at approximately the same time
after competing in the visual
media projector market since
the late 1960’s. They are known
worldwide and claim to be the
best. When performing a search
of document camera producers
these two companies are at the
top of the list.
Solidly using the Document Camera
and Why
• Teresa Boyer
– HS Special Education
Teacher
• Why the document
camera is so much
better than the
overhead projector
The Future of the Document Camera
• Document cameras are the next overhead projectors for
educators. Direct comparisons between the two technologies
can easily be made. Educators who have already made the
change cannot sing enough praises of the document camera.
Document cameras are used predominantly in the classroom
As the classroom changes will there be as large a need for
document cameras?
Summary
• Overhead projectors have been in existence since the 1940’s,
however, they did not become an invaluable tool to teachers
until the 1960’s. While overhead projectors were, and in some
cases still are, invaluable tools the document camera has gone
one step further. No longer are teachers writing on clear
transparencies or students trying to take notes in the dark.
The document camera has turned the lights on and made the
classroom a more welcoming learning environment.
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Overhead Projector/Elmo Obsolete/Emerged - Emerging