Overhead Projector/Document Camera Obsolete/Emerged Carol Deuling-Ravell EDUC8848 11/20/11 Overhead Projector Tetrad Enhances: Obsoletes: •communication to large group of students •allows notes to be used multiple times without rewriting each time •having to write on the chalk board Retrieves/Rekindles: Reverses: •classroom movies and filmstrips •systems that will project from other devices •projection devices that will not require special pens and plastic sheets Analysis of 6 Forces and Overhead Projectors Evolutionary Technology Rhymes of History • Overhead projectors are evolved from opaque projectors (ehow, n.d.), opaque projectors were hot and would sometimes catch the original paper on fire. In the 1940’s overhead projectors were used by the police to draw criminal profiles (xtimeline, n.d.). Modern overhead projectors came out of 3M and were not received with excitement until a sales campaign focusing on teachers and the benefits in the classroom (xtimeline, n.d.). • Overhead projectors initially entered the market in the 1940’s with the military, which used them to train large groups of soldiers (xtimeline, n.d.). The modern overhead projectors transitioned into the classroom in the early 1960’s where teachers were able to use it to teach large groups of students without having to write everything on the chalkboard in real time. Teachers were able to create their notes ahead of class time on the transparency and use them again if needed. Analysis of 6 Forces and Overhead Projectors Science Fiction Disruptive Technologies • In the 1940’s science fiction did not really influence the development of the overhead projector, rather it had a difficult time keeping up with reality (magicdragon.com, n.d.). Science fiction movies of the 1940’s focused more on the horror aspects with Boris Karloff and like actors rather than looking to the future. In the 1960’s science fiction focused on space travel (magicdragon.com, n.d.). Imagining how people could survive in space did not leave much space for science fiction to look at how to project images on the wall. • Overhead projectors evolved over time from the epicscope to opaque projectors to overhead projectors. Overhead projectors were not a disruptive technology that appeared suddenly. Analysis of 6 Forces and Overhead Projectors Increasing Returns Red Queens • Overhead projectors did not have a competing technology that encouraged consumer choice. • Overhead projectors evolved out of previous technology, it did not have a competing technology that pushed its continued development. Transitioning from Old to New • Sally Probst – HS Family Consumer Skills Teacher • Uses overhead projector and document camera in her classroom – each for a specific purpose Ease of Using a Document Camera • Teresa Boyer – HS Special Education Teacher • Uses classroom projection every day in every class Document Camera Tetrad Enhances: Obsoletes: •teacher ability to share notes with a large number of students use of handwritten or typed notes •the overhead projector •the use of special supplies Retrieves/Rekindles: •projection systems requiring special supplies Reverses: •Smartboard projection systems •Visual transfer of notes from paper to individual monitor systems Analysis of 6 Forces and Document Cameras Evolutionary Technology Rhymes of History • The document camera is in the evolutionary tract of the overhead projector. The document camera allows users to display 3D objects and to display documents without having to use a clear transparency. The document camera is not dependent on the ambient light in the room being dim rather it displays its material clearly. Already manufacturers are releasing document cameras that are small enough to be held in the hand. • The document camera continues to allow documents to be viewed by a large group of people. It also allows the display of 3D objects. The document camera has a rich history in visual media equipment like film projectors and cameras. Analysis of 6 Forces and Document Cameras Science Fiction Disruptive Technologies • Again science fiction is focused on space travel and how life will be in the future. Most of this genre did not look at how education and presenting to large groups will be portrayed. • At this point document cameras are the easiest option for displaying written and 3D objects to large groups. Analysis of 6 Forces and Document Cameras Increasing Returns Red Queens • At the time of its release the document camera did not have a competing technology other than the overhead projector, which had been available for a long time. Overhead projectors continue to be competition for document cameras because of their low cost. A projector of some sort must be purchased with the document camera for it to be effective, which can add considerably to the cost. While an overhead projector can be purchased as a standalone piece and even its light bulbs are relatively inexpensive. • Wolfvision and Elmo, Ltd. released the document camera at approximately the same time after competing in the visual media projector market since the late 1960’s. They are known worldwide and claim to be the best. When performing a search of document camera producers these two companies are at the top of the list. Solidly using the Document Camera and Why • Teresa Boyer – HS Special Education Teacher • Why the document camera is so much better than the overhead projector The Future of the Document Camera • Document cameras are the next overhead projectors for educators. Direct comparisons between the two technologies can easily be made. Educators who have already made the change cannot sing enough praises of the document camera. Document cameras are used predominantly in the classroom As the classroom changes will there be as large a need for document cameras? Summary • Overhead projectors have been in existence since the 1940’s, however, they did not become an invaluable tool to teachers until the 1960’s. While overhead projectors were, and in some cases still are, invaluable tools the document camera has gone one step further. No longer are teachers writing on clear transparencies or students trying to take notes in the dark. The document camera has turned the lights on and made the classroom a more welcoming learning environment.