Today’s Title: Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
• On this day in 1454, explorer
Amerigo Vespucci was
born. The continent we live
on is named after
Vespucci. What part of the
world would you like to sail
to and explore (by
boat/ship)? Why did you
choose this destination?
• barbarian: βάρβαρος (Greek pronunciation:
– In ancient Greek, it means anyone who is
not “Greek”—a stranger
– You have 3 minutes to write a sentence
under your DO NOW 
1. Glossary Builder
2. Wars in ancient Greece
A. Key Players
B. The Persian War
C. The Peloponnesian War
3. Videos
Glossary Builder
• infantry: soldiers who fight on foot
• cavalry: the part of an army that fights
on horses
• archers: someone who shoots arrows
from a bow
Glossary Builder
• rivals: competitors
• alliance: an organization of nations or
other groups to achieve a common
goal (members are called allies)
• plague: a disease that causes death
and spreads quickly to a large number
of people:
Key Players of the Wars!
• Before we begin, let’s take a look at some key
figures and places that were important to the
two wars we will be learning about today:
1. Persia- an empire located in the Asia
King Darius
King Xerxes
2. Ionia- a city-state in Greece under control
by Persia
3. Athens- a city-state in central Greece
located near the Aegean
4. Sparta- a city-state in Greece located in
the Peloponnesian Peninsula
Wars in Greece!
• Ancient Greeks fought many wars.
Among the most important were
1. The Persian Wars
2. The Peloponnesian War
• Persia was a land in the country that is
now called Iran. In the 500s BCE, the
Persians began taking over the citystates that were located in Europe
(Turkey today)
• The area under Persian control during
the Persian Wars was Asia Minor
The Persian War!
• Before we begin the story:
– Turn to page 454-455 to see how a Greek
Soldier looked like
The Persian War!
• The Persians were a big empire and
they slowly started to take control of
nearby cities. They captured the
Greek city-state of Ionia!
• The Ionians were not happy! They
asked Athens for help and together,
they burned a Persian city!
The Persian War!
• The Persians were angry!
The Persian War!
• Persian troops soon captured Ionian
cities in Greece –burning some to the
• Darius, King of Persia was really angry
with the Greeks so he set out to take
revenge by conquering all of Greece
• So, the Ionians, Athenians and other
Greeks came together to fight the
Persians = they became allies!
The Persian War!
• In 490 BCE, about 20,000 Persian
soldiers sailed to Greece
• They slowly started capturing the
smaller islands and made their way to
• The Athenians didn’t know what to do
• The citizens met in an assembly and
voted: they needed to attack
The Persian War!
• There were two Persian Wars
• The first Persian War:
– The Battle of Marathon
• 10,000 soldiers from Athens met the
Persians at Marathon. The Athenians were
outnumbered by the Persian army
• The Athenians didn’t even have infantry or
cavalry, but fought the Persians and won!!
The Persians fled to their ships!
• Victory had been accomplished!
The Persian War!
• The second Persian War:
1.The Battle
– After King Darius dies, his son Xerxes
tries oneThe
more time
to punish the
• Winner:
2.The –Battle
of Salamis
In 480 BCE, Xerxes
assembles a large
force to invade Greece once again
• Winner:
– A series of
Independent Activity:
The Persian War!
• In your textbook, read pages 450-453
and fill out the graphic organizer
• Be sure to carefully answer the review
questions on the bottom!
• We will go over this graphic organizer
together in 15 minutes!
The Peloponnesian War!
• So…the Persian Wars had ended,
but do you think that Greece was
in peace?
– NOPE! Even though the Greek citystates worked together to defeat
Persia, they were still rivals!
– The two biggest rivals that started
another war with each other were
The Peloponnesian War!
• Both Athens and Sparta were
powerful city-states:
– Athens= powerful navy + strongest sea
power in Greece (strong naval fleet)
– Sparta= powerful army + strongest land
power in Greece (strong infantry)
The Peloponnesian War!
• Why do you think they went to war with
each other?
They both wanted to be in control!
• Athens created an alliance with other
city-states and formed a group called a
• Athens was the strongest member of the
league and soon began to treat other
city-states in the league as their subjects
(they controlled them!)
The Peloponnesian War!
• The Athenians refused to let city-states leave
the league
• Athens became one of the most powerful
Greek city-states
• Sparta, located in the Peloponnesian
Peninsula, was not happy that Athens had so
much control and power and wanted to stop
their growth (they were jealous)
• So, Sparta gave Athens an ultimatum, which
was to free all the cities Athens controlled
The Peloponnesian War
• To learn more about the story of the war
between Athens and Sparta complete
the other side of your graphic organizer
• Supplies needed: pencil + highlighter!
• But, first, let’s read the directions
very carefully!
• You should be able to tell me who
won the Peloponnesian War: _____
• Review your notes and graphic
organizer from today!!
1. Quiz Wednesday on:
– The Persian War
– The Peloponnesian War
2. Finish “Peloponnesian War” graphic
organizer reading + questions
War Videos!
The Persian War
Spartan Soldiers
Spartan Warriors
Child Training
Troy behind the scenes

Ancient Greece_6_4_6_Persia and Peloponnesia Wars