Enlightenment Philosopher: Thomas Hobbes Lived during a time of upheaval in England: Fled England after the beheading of Charles I. Born on the day the English defeated the Spanish Armada. He wrote Leviathan People are by nature cruel, greedy, selfish… Without law man is by nature brutal… In a social contract, people give up their freedom for an organized society…. Hobbes in Leviathan: The ideal government is a strong, absolute monarch who can control the people. E “Force and fraud in war the two cardinal virtues.” “As a draft-animal is yoked in a wagon, even so the spirit is yoked in this body.” “Curiosity is the lust of the mind.” F “Leisure is the mother of philosophy.” o I am about to take my last voyage, a great leap in the dark.” “ Thomas Hobbes English Philosopher Author of Leviathan Believed man was by nature selfish Developed theory of Social Contract Believed in Absolute Monarchy John Locke John Locke English Philosopher People have natural rights: Life Liberty Property John Locke (1632-1704) Influenced by the Glorious Revolution in England. Poor monarch replaced by better one. Right of Revolution Locke argued that people have a right to overthrow unjust king. Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson used Locke’s Ideas Life Liberty PropertyPursuit of Happiness American Revolution based on Locke’s Ideas Writings of Locke Two Treatises of Government Essay on the Laws on Nature Letters on Religious Toleration “Logic is the anatomy of thought.” “There is frequently more to be learned from the unexpected questions of a child than the discoursed of men.” “Every man has a property in his own person. This nobody has a right to, but himself.” “To love our neighbor as ourselves is such a truth for regulating human society, that by that alone one might determine all the cases in social morality.” “The actions of men are the best interpreters of their thoughts.” “Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours.” John Locke English Philosopher Wrote Two Treatises of Government His ideas are used to Justify revolutions Create democracy United States Montesquieu French Nobleman Lived 1689-1755 Lived life of luxury Studied Law Attended gatherings at Parisian salons Views on Humanity Religion taught man to be intolerant; reason liberates them from prejudice. Author of: Spirit of Laws Persian Letters Spirit of Laws Democracies need: Branches of Government System of checks & balances to prevent corruption “ The love of democracy is that of equality.“ “ The spirit of moderation should be the spirit of the lawgiver .“ “ Lunch kills half of Paris, supper the other half.“ “ Success in the majority of circumstances depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed.“ “ I have never known any distress that an hour’s reading did not relieve.“ Montesquieu French Philosopher Wrote Spirit of Laws’ Man is intolerant U. S. Constitution based on his ideas of sharing power: Checks & Balances Voltaire Voltaire (1694-1778) ► French ► ► ► ► Playwright & Humorist Candide, 1759 Marriage of Figaro Erasez L’infame! (Crush injustice!) Used satire, wit, & wisdom Viewpoints Pessimistic view of mankind “Barbarism has lasted for centuries.” Against Absolutism and aristocracy All people are equal “Every man is guilty of all the good he did not do.” “God gave us the gift of life , it is up to us to give ourselves the gift of living well.” “I may disagree with what you say, but I shall defend to the death your right to say it.” “The ear is the avenue to the heart.” Jean Jacques Rousseau v. Mary Wollstonecraft Rousseau Wollstonecraft French English Wrote Social Contract Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women Nature of Man Rousseau Noble Savage “All men are born free but everywhere they are in shackles.” Civilization had corrupted man Evils of contemporary politics and Society Wollstonecraft Men and women are equal “Let women share the rights and she will emulate the virtues of man; for she must grow more perfect when emancipated. On Government Rousseau Government should be based on the general will of the people. Laws made from the general will should be obeyed Individuals should be loyal to the community Wollstonecraft Men and women should have a voice in government. Women will protect the common good. Opposing Views on Women Rousseau Women are inferior to men They live in separate spheres All women should breast feed their infants The only education women need is how to please men. Wollstonecraft Education strengthens the mind, body, and soul. To deny women an equal education is to keep them enslaved. Society will never achieve perfection, until women are educated.