Presented by Diane Frame
Phonological Awareness is Auditory
A sentence is made up of
words. Orally separate a 4
word sentence into individual
A sentence is made up of
words. Point/Clap/Count
words in a sentence
Syllables: combine/delete
syllables into/from spoken
words (pa+per=paper/ paperpa=per)
Syllables: Identify syllables
in spoken words (clap/move
object for each syllable)
Rhyme: Produce a word that
rhymes with a given word
(match rhyming pairs, rhyme
in nursery rhyme)
Alliteration: Produce word
with same beginning sound as
a pair of words big, blue)
Rhyme: Orally generate
rhyme in response to spoken
words (what rhymes with
hat?) Distinguish rhyme
from non-rhyme (bat/hat vs
Alliteration: Recognize
spoken alliteration (baby
boy bounces ball)
Rhyme: Orally generate a
series of original rhyming
words using a variety of
phonograms (ant/ake, bl,cl)
Distinguish between
long/short vowel sounds in
spoken words (bit/bite)
Recognize the change in a
spoken word when a phoneme
is added/changed/removed
(cat/hat, hat/ham, ham/him)
Phonological Awareness: provides a basis for phonics
Onset & Rime: combine
onset and rime of a familiar
one syllable word first using
pictures, then without
Onset & Rime: Blend spoken
onset and rimes to form
simple words (cvc - /c/ + at)
Phonemes: Child recognizes
and blends two phonemes
into real words with pictorial
support (/k/ + /e/ = key)
Phonemes: Blend spoken
phonemes to form one
syllable words (/m/ /a/ /n/)
Isolate initial phoneme on
one syllable spoken words
(cat = /k/)
Segment one syllable spoken
words into 2-3 phonemes
(dog = /d/ /o/ /g/)
Phonemes: Blend spoken
phonemes into one and two
syllable words including
blends (/f/ /l/ /a/ /t/)
Isolate initial/medial/final
sounds in one syllable spoken
words (cat= /k/ /a/ /t/)
Segment one syllable spoken
words into 3-5 phonemes
(splat= /s/ /p/ /l/ /a/ /t/)
How do we teach Phonological
words in sente
of Word
• Counters, students, fi
Sentence segmentation:
Whole Group: Smartboard, large word cards
• words from poems, stories, big books, sight words
• pocket charts, students
Small Group: index cards, ipads, white boards, sentence strips (cut,
then glue it back together)
I can see the dog run.
How do we teach Phonological
Whole group/Small group
1. Line up/release
2. Syllable sort in word work center
3. Names, picture cards, months/days of week
4. Vocabulary words
5. Sight words
How do we teach Phonological
Bubble gum, bubble gum in a dish
How many pieces do you wish?
Nursery rhymes, counting chants,
counting out chants, jump rope
rhyme (pretend, then use at
recess), hink pink clues, Rhyme?
Yes/No, Rhyme around the
circle/table, Oops Wrong Rhyme
This is my _____, Oops, no this is
my _________!
pie/ eye
1, 2, 3, 4…
How do we teach Phonological
Twisters:and other word play
Sally sells seashells down by the sea
Use their names: David digs deep
dark donut holes!
Spoonerisms: sound switching
Start with a funny name day: Is your name Randy Jones?
No, Im Jandy Rones
Then play games with them: Goys and birls, today is our
dibary lay.
Pig Latin:
“ouyay, avhay a-ay oodgay ayday!”
How do we teach Phonological
Phoneme Blending (auditory)
First have them echo sounds you make: single sounds, double sounds, strings of sounds:
/i/, /i/ /i/, /i/ /e/ /t/ (at teacher table they can move a bean, cube, or other manipulative
from left to right to represent the sounds they echo) No letters yet!
Next, blending with names: “I’m thinking of a friend, can you guess who…/v/ /er/ /o/ /n/ /i/
/k/ /a/”
Finally, move to vocabulary words, theme words, or sight words.
*Resource for higher or older kids needing to develop phonological awareness: Sounds
Like Fun by Cecile Cyrul Spector
Phonics: Sounds and Print are connected
Letters: Name 20 upper and
20 lowercase letters
Sounds: Recognize 20 letter
Produce 10 letter sounds
Letters/Sounds: Identify
common sounds
*consonants and vowels
Letters/Sounds: Decode
words in context and
isolation by applying common
*consonants, vowels, blends,
consonant digraphs, vowel
digraphs, vowel dipthongs
Combine sounds from letters
and common spelling patterns
(consonant blends, long and
short-vowel patterns) to
create recognizable words
Use knowledge of lettersound relationships to
decode regular words in
text and independent of
content (VC, CVC, CCVC,
CVCC words).
Use common syllabication
patterns to decode words
Phonics: the relationship between letters/groups of letters and sounds
Recognize that new words
are created when letters are
changed, added, or
Read base words with
inflectional endings (plurals,
past tenses)
Decode words with common
spelling patterns (-ink, -onk,
Use knowledge of the
meaning of base words to
identify and read common
compound words
Identify and read
contractions (isn’t, can’t).
Identify and read at least
25 high- frequency words
from a commonly used list.
Identify and read at least
100 high- frequency words
form a commonly used list.
How do we teach Phonics?
Letters and Sounds
How do we teach Phonics?
Blending Sounds
Bumpy blending – sounds are distinctly
separate or “choppy”. Can cause problems for
many children.
Smooth Blending – sounds are connected or
“hooked together”. This is what we want!
Model smooth blending!
/s/ /u/ /n/ = sun
What about those who struggle?
Whole Group – using a set of large
letters, have students stand apart
saying their sounds, move closer
together and say sounds quicker.
Small Group – Phonics Phones, Say
it/Move it, Bumpy/Smooth
Ideas: take a breath first, sing the word, finger hook
How do we teach Phonics?
Segmenting Sounds
Blending and Segmenting are two sides of the
same coin. So much of what we do with
language, reading and writing, works this way.
We want children to see the connections.
Just like we modeled smooth blending, we
want to model smooth segmenting as well.
sun = /s/ /u/ /n/
• Puppet Talk
• Push the sounds
• Bead slide
• Ball toss – individual or partner
• Push lights
• Slinky
• Rubber bands
How do we teach Phonics?
Sound Switching
Sound Switching is about playing with sounds
in words and recognizing where the switch
happened. Start with two or three phoneme
Can be auditory or visual
Whole Group: Use letter cards on pocket chart
or let children be specific letters you need,
smartboard, white boards, etc.
How do we teach Phonics?
How do we teach Phonics?
Sight Words
Interactive Sight Word Wall
Rocket Book / Giraffe Book
Kinesthetic Spelling – cheerleading,
jump roping, swimming, motorcycle,
jack in the box, catch/throw a ball,
shaving cream, wiki sticks, stamps,
magnetic letters, sand, etc.
Phonemic Awareness by CTP
Oo-ples and Boo-noo-noos by Yopp
Reading Readiness by Neuhaus
Books for Phonemic Awareness:
Runny Babbit by Shel Silverstein
A Huge Hog is a Big Pic by McCall and Keeler
I’m Number One by Rosen
Some Smug Slug by Edwards
Hooway for Wodney Wat by Lester
Zin! Zin! Zin! A Violin by Moss
Alphabet Books and Dr. Seuss Books