Unit 6 – Fitness Testing for
Sport & Exercise
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Introduction
•
•
•
This unit will introduce you to health screening and fitness testing for sport and
health purposes. You will learn how to select and administer specific fitness tests
relevant to a sport of your choice. After familiarising yourself with a number of
tests, you will develop the skills to examine and interpret the results, enabling
you to suggest changes to training to develop certain aspects of fitness to
enhance your sports performance
You will experience a range of fitness tests that could be used to test elite
performers.
After completing this unit you will be able to:
–
Understand a range of laboratory – based and field – based fitness tests
–
Understand the practice of health screening
–
Be able to prepare for, and conduct, appropriate fitness tests
–
Be able to analyse the results of fitness tests
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Components of fitness
•
Fitness is important to an athlete for the following reasons:
– It can improve your physical performance
– You can recover from training and competition more quickly
– You will be less likely to pick up an injury
– You may have better technique as you will not become tired so quickly
– You will enjoy having lots of energy and being able to train and compete
successfully
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Introduction to fitness testing
•
There are several reasons why fitness testing may be performed. The main aim of
fitness testing is to develop knowledge and understanding of the exercise
capabilities of humans. Fitness testing is common practice in many sports.
•
Fitness testing can be used in several ways:
– Identify strengths and areas for improvement relative to the physical demands
of your sport
– Modifications to training programmes can be made using the fitness testing
data
– Provide feedback to coaches and athletes
– To educate athletes of the effects of training
– Setting short term goals for the improvement of fitness, the testing is used as a
motivating tool
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Environmental factors
•
Fitness testing outdoors can be problematic if the weather conditions are poor. This type of
testing often requires a back up plan if conditions are extreme such as heavy rain or high
winds. High temperatures combined with high humidity can impair endurance performance
and pose health risks. If tests are completed under different conditions this will affect the
results and any changes in your results could be due to a fitness change or the testing
conditions. It is important to note down the conditions such as temperature, wind and surface
conditions so there is a written record of the testing session.
•
The surface used to test on can significantly affect results. If the test is performed outside on a
football pitch for one session and then the re-test in administered in a sports hall with a
concrete surface the results will be very different, even if there is no change to an individual’s
or team’s fitness level.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Capability of testers and testing error
•
•
Tester experience and ability can have a large impact on the test results. It is
essential that testers assist qualified experienced testers until they are proficient in
the testing protocols. Inaccurate recording or interpreting of data affects the
reliability of the test.
One significant factor for laboratory and field testing is an athlete’s level of
motivation. During maximal tests a player is required to push himself/herself to
exhaustion, often feeling extremely fatigued and nauseous. There may also be
external factors that could affect athletes such as coaches being present during the
test.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Test Criteria
•
•
•
For fitness testing to be accurate you need to think about the following:
Reliability
– Can the test be repeated and reproduced exactly
– A test is reliable if the results are consistent and repeatable over time.
Reliability refers to the precision of a test which should have a high level of
accuracy. Fitness tests can become unreliable if there are variations within the
test that affect the result rather than the changes in an individual
Validity
– Validity refers to whether a test actually assesses what is intended. The
following points should be considered:
– Does the test measure exactly what you want it to measure For example, a 10m
sprint will not give you an indication of a person’s top speed
– The fitness test must reflect the form of exercise that is being assessed. If you
are fitness testing a rugby player the tests must reflect the demands of the game
– The muscle groups that are used during a sport and range of movement should
be reflected in the fitness test
– The energy systems required for a sport
– The speed of movement and duration of the event
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Criteria Continued
•
Relevance
– Does the test give the information specifically wanted For example an
endurance test performed on a treadmill is more relevant to a footballer than a
swimmer
– Tests must be sports specific – relevant to the sport you play
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Fitness tests
•
Anthropometric tests
•
•
Stature
The common method for measuring the height of an individual is by using a
stadiometer.
Aim: To measure the height of an individual
Equipment
Stadiometer
Protocol
Individuals are required to be bare foot and stand with their feet together with their
heels, buttocks and upper part of the back touching the scale. The tester must ensure
the subject is looking straight forward. The tester then lowers the head board and
places it firmly on the subjects head. The floor surface must be hard and level.
Advantages: Reliable test that can be repeated with minimal testing error
Disadvantages: Need to perform the test at the same time as the spine shrinks
slightly during the day
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Body Mass
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aim: To assess body mass
Equipment
Balance beam or electronic scales
Protocol
Body mass must be assessed with minimal clothing. This means
underwear only.
The most accurate method is nude weighing; however this is often not
practical. To overcome these clothes that are going to be worn can be
weighed prior to the test and their weight subtracted from the mass of the
subject.
Body mass fluctuates throughout the day so the test must be administered
at the same time of day.
Advantages: Minimal inexpensive equipment.
Disadvantages: Body mass can fluctuate throughout the day; the test
needs to be administered at the same time.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Problems with BMI
•
The BMI scale is;
– old,
– inadequate,
– invalid for most individuals.
• BMI is based on the assumption that
everyone is of the same frame size, which
is obviously not the case.
• This is not to say that body fat % is not
important, because it is, but you shouldn’t
use the BMI scale to decide a target weight.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Body Composition
•
•
Body composition provides an indication of individual’s fat levels. There are a
number of methods to assess body composition.
Skinfold measurements – this method requires the tester to use callipers to take
measurements on different locations around the body. The tester locates these points
from specific bone and joint definitions. These points are called landmarks. The
accurate locating of the landmarks requires a good knowledge of anatomy to be
able to locate the same point on the body for each test. Using the callipers the tester
pinches the skin and fat beneath the surface and places the callipers over this fold to
take the reading.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Skin Fold Measurements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aim: To assess how much of the body mass is fat.
Body fat is vital to daily body functions; it cushions the joints and protects the
organs, helps regulate body temperature, stores vitamins and helps the body sustain
itself when food is scarce. Everyone needs some body fat to be active and healthy.
Most people think that body weight, and not body fat, is a direct indication of
fitness. Yet during a diet and exercise regime, whilst a person’s weight may vary
their body fat will decline in a slow but steady rate to the desired level.
Equipment
Skinfold calipers
Tape measure
Advantages: Quick test to administer with relatively inexpensive equipment
Disadvantages: Large degree of measurement error in the tester is inexperienced
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Bioelectrical Impedance
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aim: To assess fat mass and lean muscle tissue
This method measures body composition by sending a low, safe electrical current
through the body. The current passes freely through the fluids contained in muscle
tissue, but encounters difficulty/resistance when it passes through fat tissue. This
resistance of the fat tissue to the current is termed 'bioelectrical impedance'.
Protocol
The subject lies on his/her back on a non-conducting surface, with legs apart and
arms away from the body.
A pair of electrodes is placed on the hand and wrist, and another pair placed on the
ankle and foot (usually opposite sides of the body). The equipment is generally
quite expensive but a good alternative to skinfolds, especially if the tester is not
very experienced. It is important to follow the exact instructions of the bioelectrical
impedance machine as models and instructions vary slightly.
Advantages: Non-invasive test and easy to administer with minimal training or
experience required
Disadvantages: Results can be affected by the hydration status of an individual
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Anaerobic Power
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vertical jump
Aim: to assess leg power
Equipment
– A wall mounted board marked in centimetres ranging in height from 150cm to
350cm
– A piece of chalk
Jump mat if available
The subject stands with the preferred body side to the wall with the soles of the feet
remaining on the floor and reaches as high as possible up the wall, making a short
horizontal mark with the chalk
Still holding the chalk/magnet and standing side on to the wall, the subject then
crouches, and jumps as high as possible - the chalk mark is placed at the highest
point.
Arm swings, prior to jumping, are allowed.
A total of 3 attempts is made, each being recorded
Total height jumped is the difference in cm between the first mark and the highest
mark after the jump.
Advantages: Easily administered, inexpensive portable equipment
Disadvantages: Not always sports specific action, technique can affect the results
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Vertical Jump Test
– Using Jump Mat
- Using Chalk
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Strength
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Handgrip strength test
Aim: To measure hand grip strength
Equipment
Handgrip dynamometer
Procedure
The subject grips the dynamometer vertically above the head. When ready the
subject grips as hard as possible while moving the arm forward to the count of
three.
The arm remains locked and straight at the elbow throughout the grip manoeuvre.
Repeat test with other hand.
Advantages: Quick to administer with minimal inexpensive equipment
Disadvantages: May not be sports specific
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Speed
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
40 Metre sprint test
Aim: To measure speed
Equipment
A measured 40 metre flat running surface.
Two stopwatches or automated timing lights
Procedure
Arrange subjects on the starting line. It may be best to test individually rather than as large
groups. Infra-red beam sensors are available for automatic timing which will allow accurate
timing of larger groups of people.
Subjects use a standing start with leading foot behind the starting line.
The starting command is "Ready"..."Go"!
On the command "Go", the subject sprints as fast as possible through to the finish line.
For hand-held timing the timer starts the watch on the arm movement of the starter and stops
the watch as the subject's chest crosses the finishing line. Automatic timing lights should be
aligned so that they are exactly 40m apart.
Time is measured to at least one hundredth of a second.
Subjects should have two attempts with approximately 2 - 5 minutes recovery period.
Advantages: Sports specific test and easy to administer
Disadvantages: Can be affected by weather conditions if performed outdoors. Timing
systems can be very expensive
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Flexibility
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sit and reach test
Aim: To measure flexibility of the lower back and hamstrings.
Equipment
A sit and reach box
A ruler
Set-up
Rest the sit-and-reach box against a wall.
Advantages: Easily administered with inexpensive equipment
Disadvantages: Measures specific hamstring and lower back, and does not indicate where an
individual may have a potential problem
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Muscular Endurance
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sit-up test
Aim: To assess the muscular endurance of the trunk and hip flexors.
Equipment
A gymnastic mat or carpeted floor
Starting position
Hook lying position (knees 90 degrees), fingers beside the ears. Feet are held to the floor by
the tester.
Modified sit ups
Aim: To assess the endurance of the hip and trunk flexor muscles. It is suitable for subjects
who are unable to perform the standard sit-up test.
Advantages: Can be performed with minimal equipment
Disadvantages: Measures specific core muscles and this may not be sports specific
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Muscular Endurance
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Press up test
Aim: To assess the muscular endurance of the elbow extensors and shoulder flexors.
This test is suitable for those aged over 15 years old.
Starting position
Arms straight, hand directly under the shoulders, legs straight, feet together with toes
supporting the legs. The body is straight from the shoulders, through the hips to the heels.
Procedure
Lower the nose or chin to the mat, keeping the straight body position. Return to the starting
position (no other part of the body is to touch the floor). This counts as one repetition.
Count the number of repetitions performed in 60 seconds.
Advantages: administered with inexpensive equipment
Disadvantages: Can not be performed with junior athletes
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Aerobic Endurance
•
•
•
•
The multi-stage 20 metre shuttle run test (Beep Test)
Aim: To measure endurance and maximum oxygen uptake
Equipment/facility:
A flat non-slip surface of at least 22 metres in length - tennis courts are useful for this test
Measuring tape (> 20 metres)
Masking tape
Marker cones
Stopwatch
Cassette / CD player
Multi stage fitness test tape or CD
•
•
Advantages: Sports specific for football and easy to administer with large groups
Disadvantages: Individuals need to be highly motivated to push themselves to exhaustion
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Aerobic endurance
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.4k run
Aim: To measure endurance and maximal oxygen uptake
Equipment
A 200 to 400 metre athletic track or suitable firm, even running surface (preferably grass)
Stopwatch. Several assistants may be required.
Protocol
The subject should complete pre-exercise screening questionnaire and consent forms.
Allow 10 minutes to warm up and include stretching exercises.
Encourage subjects to do their best but also watch for signs of distress, when subjects need to
slow down and possibly walk for a while.
Time subjects as they complete the 2.4 km distance.
Advise subjects to keep walking for 5 minutes as soon as they finish the test followed by
stretching exercises
.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Treadmill VO2 max Test
Objective
To monitor the development of the athlete's general endurance (VO2 max).
Required Resources
To undertake this test you will require:
Treadmill where speed and grade of slope can be adjusted
Stop watch
An assistant
How to conduct the test
The athlete runs on a treadmill to exhaustion. At timed stages during the run the slope of the treadmill is
increased as detailed in the table below.
Time At minute intervals during the test the slope of the treadmill is adjusted.
The assistant starts the stopwatch at the start of the test and stops it when the athlete is unable to continue this ideally should be between 9 and 15 minutes.
"Time" is the total time of the test expressed in minutes and fractions of a minute.
Example
The athlete stopped the test after 13 minutes 15 seconds of running (13.25 minutes).
VO2 max = 42 + (13.25 × 2)
Vo2 max = 68.5 mls/kg/min
Target Group
This test is suitable for endurance athletes and players of endurance sports (e.g. football, rugby) but not for
individuals where the test would be contraindicated.
Reliability
Reliability would depend upon, how strict the test is conducted and the individual's level of motivation to
perform the test.
Department Of Physical Education & Sport
Download

Fitness Testing PP 1