Chapter 2
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CHINA
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Stressed Isolationism and a contemplative life
Privileged class participated in wrestling, boxing
and Kung Fu as early as 2698 B.C.
INDIA
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Governed by religious beliefs that stressed inner
peace over physical activity.
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EGYPTIANS
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Raised in a militaristic society and therefore saw
the importance of physical fitness
Fitness for everyone, not just the ruling class
ROMANS
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Stressed physical training to allow rulers to gain
more land and riches
Over time, professionalism was stressed and more
people became spectators instead of participants
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GREECE
 Athens – Physical education experienced a
“Golden Age”. Exemplified the mind-body
spirit
 Spartans – Very Militaristic
 “Come home with your shield or on it”
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Greek Physicians
 Herodicus (480 BC) Nutrition
 Hippocrates ( 460 – 377 BC) “First do no harm”
 Galen (131 – 201 AD) –
 First Sports Medicine Physician
 Dissection and Rehab
 Galen’s work inspired other physicians
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Held Olympics from 776 B.C. – 394 A.D.
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Fall of the Roman Empire in A.D.476
used in a period of 1,000 years known
as the Dark Ages; in which physical
activity sport and fitness diminished
because of political and economic chaos
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RENAISSANCE
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Renewed interest in learning, doing,
recreation and fitness. Also renewed
interest in expanding and exploring
A MORE MODERN TIME
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YMCA began in England in 1844 and was
devoted to character and physical
education
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1844-1884
In1866 first legislation passed in
California requiring physical ed. In the
schools
1875 Intercollegiate Association was
formed
Intercollegiate Conference
1895
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Faculty Representatives formed (eventually
became the Big 10 Conference)
What happened to make sports standardized
or institutionalized?
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Rules became standard
Bodies are formed to enforce rules
Standards of competition are set
Sport is promoted for participants as well as
spectators
Championships are formed
Chapter 2
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Emerging Profession
1885-1930
Birth of a Profession
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Gymnasium was the center of ancient
Greek education and culture
Fall of the Roman Empire in A.D.476
used in a period of 1,000 years known
as the Dark Ages; in which physical
activity sport and fitness diminished
because of political and economic chaos
Battle of the Systems
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Period of 1885-1900: marked
competition among several approaches
of what was called “gymnastics”
Marked a period when immigrants
brought their own approaches and
loyalties
German System (Fredrick
Jahn)
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Balanced academics with physical
education
Developed Turnplatz
Strict gymnastic programs but did
incorporate track and field event
Important student leaders:
Beck,Follen,and Leiber
Swedish System Henrick Ling
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Interest in anatomy and physiology
Scientific-Therapeutic
An understudy(Nissen) furthered the
system by befriending Mary Hemenway
Father of Physical Therapy
Beecher System
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System developed for women
Developed grace and fitness
Incorporated music in the workouts
Dio Lewis System
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Used components from German,
Sweeden and Beecher
Use of music-incorporated flexibility
Focused on the value of wt. training
Published the first journal in
P.E.Gymnastic Monthly and Journal of
Physical Culture
Hitchcock System ( 1861)
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Scientific emphasis, based on
measurement
System was designed around a battery
of test
Ladders,weights, jumping rope and
climbing
Sargent System-Teacher Based
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Also based on measurements but used
them for exercise prescription
Designed exercise machines to enhance
various physical characteristics
The Boston Conference 1889
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Battle of the systems-hosted by Mary
Hemenway
Gave credibility to the field of Physical
Education
The American System was created
Sport was not a major topic of this
conference
Important Leaders
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Luther Gulick-Helped form the
Playground Association of America
Rosiland Cassidy- Worked with
Kinesiology
Delphine Hanna-developed the nations
first teacher-preparation program in p.e.
Cont.
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Edward Thorndike-Psychologist;
believed children were not just small
adults
John Dewey-Education leader who
supported Heatherington’s theories
FORMALIZATION WAS OUT-Natural play
was in
Leaders of the 1900’s
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Thomas Wood-Education through the
physical
Organic, Psychomotor, Social
Development, and Mental Development
Placed more emphasis on games and
game skills-Natural Gymnastics