Chapter Introduction Section 1: Exploration and Expansion Section 2: The Atlantic Slave Trade Section 3: Colonial Latin America Visual Summary How are the Americas linked to Africa? The demand for enslaved Africans increased dramatically after Europeans began to settle in the Americas. The Cape Coast Castle in Ghana is one of the forts where enslaved Africans were held until ships arrived to take them to the Americas. This fort could hold about 1,500 slaves usually locked in dark, crowded dungeons for many weeks. Today, the Cape Coast Castle contains a museum that allows people to learn about slavery. In this chapter you will learn about the exploration of new lands and its global impact. • Why might people want to visit the Cape Coast Castle? • Does slavery occur in any parts of the world today? Exploration and Expansion In what ways did European nations prosper through exploration in the fifteenth century? The Atlantic Slave Trade How did European expansion and the slave trade affect the people of Africa? Colonial Latin America How did Portugal and Spain profit from their colonies in Latin America? The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries Europeans began exploring the world in the 1400s, and several nations experienced economic heights through worldwide trade. Content Vocabulary • conquistadors • encomienda • Columbian Exchange Academic Vocabulary • overseas • percent People and Places • Hernán Cortés • Ferdinand Magellan • Portugal • John Cabot • Vasco da Gama • Amerigo Vespucci • Melaka • Montezuma • Christopher Columbus • Francisco Pizarro • Cuba Motives and Means (cont.) • Five European powers, led by Portugal and Spain, engaged in an age of exploration. All rose to new economic heights. • Motives for European exploration include “God, glory, and gold” – Economic interests – Europeans wanted to expand trade and locate spices and precious metals. European Voyages of Discovery Motives and Means (cont.) – Religious zeal – Explorers such as Hernán Cortés were interested in sharing the Catholic faith with native peoples. – There was an increased desire for grandeur, glory, and the spirit of adventure. European Voyages of Discovery A Race for Riches (cont.) • Portugal took the lead in European exploration under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator. • Portuguese ships traveled along the western coast of Africa, finding gold and other goods. • Vasco de Gama traveled around the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Africa, and landed in India in 1498. A Race for Riches (cont.) • The Portuguese captured the important port city of Melaka on the Malay Peninsula, which enabled the Portuguese to control the spice trade that had been dominated by Arab traders. • The Portuguese used seamanship, guns, and treaties to control the spice trade. However, they did not have the people, wealth, or desire to expand their empire in Asia. A Race for Riches (cont.) • Christopher Columbus was an explorer who sailed for Spain. Columbus searched for a western route to Asia and landed at Cuba and Hispaniola in 1492. • The Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and into the Pacific Ocean. Magellan is credited with being the first person to circumnavigate the globe. A Race for Riches (cont.) • In 1494, Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, separating control of the newly discovered lands. • John Cabot, a Venetian, explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England. • The writings of Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine mapmaker, led to the use of the name “America” for the newly discovered lands in the western hemisphere. The Spanish Empire (cont.) • The Spanish conquistadors established an overseas empire in the Americas. • In 1519 Hernán Cortés and his Spanish allies were welcomed into Tenochtitlán by the Aztec monarch Montezuma. The Spanish were expelled from the city one year later. • When the Spaniards left, smallpox devastated the Aztec capital. The Spanish returned and captured the city, and the Aztec Empire was destroyed. The Spanish Empire (cont.) • In 1530 Francisco Pizarro led an expedition into the Inca Empire. Like the Aztec, the Incas were no match for Spanish disease, guns, and horses. • Pizarro established a new capital for the Spanish colony at Lima. • The Spanish used a system of colonial administration called the encomienda system— the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers. The Spanish Empire (cont.) • Spanish landowners could use Native Americans for labor in return for protection and converting them to Christianity. • Native American political and social structures were torn apart and replaced by European systems of religion, language, and government. • The exchange of plants, animals, and disease between Europe and the Americas is known as the Columbian Exchange. European Rivals (cont.) • The Dutch formed the East India Company to compete with the English and Portuguese for the Indian Ocean trade. • The Dutch also formed the West India Company to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas. • By the early seventeen century, the Dutch established settlements in North America such as New Netherland. European Rivals (cont.) • In the 1600s, the French colonized parts of present-day Louisiana and regions of Canada. • The English began to settle the eastern seaboard of North America and islands in the Caribbean Sea. • In 1664, the English seized the harbor of New Netherland from the Dutch and renamed it New York. The BIG Idea Human Rights European expansion affected Africa with the dramatic increase of the slave trade. Content Vocabulary • colony • plantations • mercantilism • triangular trade • balance of trade • Middle Passage • subsidies Academic Vocabulary • transportation • primary People and Places • King Afonso • Benin Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.) • The nations of Europe created trading empires and established colonies in the Americas and in the East. • Colonies were an integral part of mercantilism, an economic theory based on gold and a limited amount of wealth in the world. Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.) • Colonies provided raw materials and markets for finished goods. • To bring in more gold, nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade and export more goods than they imported. • To encourage exports, governments granted subsidies and improved transportation systems. Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.) • Slavery had existed since ancient times, and African slaves served as domestic servants in Southwest Asia. • The demand for slaves changed dramatically with the introduction of sugarcane. Labor was needed to work the plantations where sugarcane was grown. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.) • Slaves became an important commodity in the triangular trade that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. • As many as 10 million African slaves may have been brought to the Americas between 1500 and the late 1800s. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism (cont.) • One reason for the high number of exported slaves was the high mortality rate, especially during the Middle Passage, the journey across the Atlantic Ocean. • The slave trade devastated the population of African communities near the coastal regions. • Some African rulers, such as King Afonso, protested but were ignored by African and European slave traders. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.) • Effects of the slave trade in Africa: – depopulated areas – increased warfare – loss of the strongest and youngest men and women Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.) • Benin was transformed from a brilliant society into a brutal, war-ravaged region following the introduction of slavery. • The use of enslaved Africans was widely accepted until the Society of Friends began to condemn it in the 1770s. • The French abolished slavery in the 1790s; the English abolished slavery in 1807; and slavery continued in the United States until the 1860s. The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries Portugal and Spain reaped profits from the natural resources and products of their Latin American colonies. Content Vocabulary • peninsulares • mulattoes • creoles • mita • mestizos Academic Vocabulary • labor • draft People and Places • Brazil • Juana Inés de la Cruz Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.) • In the 1500s, Portugal controlled Brazil, while Spain’s colonial possessions included parts of North America, Central America, and most of South America. • The area of Central and South America became known as Latin America, and a unique social class system emerged. Colonial Latin America to 1750 Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.) • Colonial Latin America Social Order: – Peninsulares: Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe; they held all important government positions. – Creoles: Descendants of Europeans who were born in Latin America; they controlled business and land. – Mestizos: The offspring of European and Native American intermarriage. Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.) – Mulattoes: The offspring of Africans and Europeans. – Conquered Native Americans and enslaved Africans. Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.) • Europeans utilized the Native Americans as labor. They used the encomienda system and mita to sustain a viable labor force. • Gold and silver from the colonies offered immediate wealth to the Europeans. Products, such as tobacco, sugar, and animal hides were traded to Europe in return for finished products. Colonial Empires in Latin America (cont.) • To control their colonial possessions in the Americas, Portugal and Spain used governor-generals to develop a bureaucracy and carry out imperial policies. • Catholic missionaries were also instrumental in converting and maintaining order within the colonial territories. • The Catholic Church provided an outlet other than marriage for women. Many nuns like Juana Inés de la Cruz, urged convents to educate women on subjects beyond religion. EARLY EXPLORATION of West Africa, India, and the Americas • Motivated by religious zeal, gold, and glory, Europeans began to explore distant lands. • The Portuguese sailed east around Africa to India. • Spanish ships sailed west to the Americas. • Spanish conquistadors seized lands ruled by the Aztec and Inca. • Diseases introduced by Spanish explorers killed much of the Native American population. • By the late 1600s, the Dutch, French, and English entered the rivalry for new lands and trade. AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE of Europe, Asia, and the Americas • Before the new exploration, the primary market for enslaved Africans had been Southwest Asia. • The demand for plantation laborers in the Americas greatly increased slave trade. • Enslaved Africans were part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and Asia, and the Americas. • In Africa, the slave trade led to increased warfare, depopulation, and the deterioration of society. COLONIAL EMPIRES of Latin America • The Portuguese and Spanish profited from their colonial empires in Latin America. • Peninsulares were the top social class, followed by creoles, mestizos and mulattoes, and finally enslaved Africans and Native Americans. • Catholic missionaries spread across the Americas to try to Christianize Native Americans. Chapter Transparencies Menu Chapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.