Latin America “anything South of the United States” Ancient Civilizations Mayans -Central America -concept of 0, large temples, 365 day calendar Incas -Extensive road system to maintain the Empire (like Rome) -Terrace farming for agriculture on the mountain sides Aztecs -Capital city of Tenochtitlan ruled by Montezuma -City built with Chinampas, or floating gardens. -Chinampas were used to grow more food Exploration (3) New advances led to increased sailing: Compass, Astrolabe, Cartography, Caravel ships Portuguese and Spanish dominate exploration: Portuguese Spanish 1415- Prince Henry the Navigator 1492- Columbus Sails West towards Asia -fleet of ships explore African Coast -The New world is split b/t Spain and finding Cape of Good Hope (Dias 1488) Portugal by Treaty of Tordesillas -Vasco da Gama found all water trade -Founded Columbian Exchange- Global route to India’s port cities transfer of goods, food, ideas and people Discovery The Americas were discovered by Christopher Columbus who established trading routes between Europe and the “West Indies” Latin America was quickly populated by European settlers looking to strike it rich with gold. The trade route between the Americas and Europe was the Columbian Exchange. Columbian Exchange Positives Negatives -New foods thrived in Europe and created a surplus of food (increase population) -disease spread from Europe to the New world killing millions -permanent contact between the East and West established -Natives were subjected to a form of slavery under the Encomienda system -African Slave trade begins Encomienda A racial social structure meant which effectively enslaved the Native Americans Peninsulares- Spanish Born Most Social systems in history American born Spanish are based Creoleson socio-economic status, such as occupation. Spanish and Native What is the MestizosEncomienda American system based on? MulattoesSpanish and African Race Natives and African (slaves) Mercantilism As trade with the American colonies increased many Europeans began investing in companies to make a profit. European nations also adopted Mercantilism. This policy involves a nation building up their wealth by EXPORTING more than they IMPORT. In other words, they sell more than they buy. Revolutionary Fever The people of Latin America had witnessed the American Revolution. Then the French Revolution. They were inspired by both, particularly the creoles, who read translated copies of the American Declaration of Independence. • Lack of political influence • Distant foreign king American French • Outdated social system • Financial crisis • Unfair Social classes • Lack of political influence Latin Catalyst for change When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain in 1808 the people of Spanish controlled Latin America saw it as an opportunity to revolt. Napoleon placed his brother on the throne of Spain. Latin American leaders saw this as a sign of Spain’s weakness. With Spain preoccupied with the French, the opportunity for them to demand independence from colonial rule had arrived. The Spark!! Latin American Revolutions Haiti -led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, the slaves of Haiti rebelled Mexico -Father Miguel Hidalgo led a peasant revolt to free the Mexicans from Spanish rule. He was unsuccessful -Mexico earned independence in 1802 but struggled with democracy Columbia -Simon “the Liberator” Bolivar leads Columbians and others in independence throughout Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. -envisions a Gran Columbia but political differences and geography prevents it 7:48 Third World Latin America is considered a third world nation because much of the area lacks water supplies, many areas deal with struggling governments and limited infrastructure. As third world nations, Latin America provides cheap labor, new markets, and resources Cuban Revolution Cuba did not gain independence until 1902 with help from the US. The US maintained puppet governments led by presidents backed by the US. The US maintained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs for decades, and US investors mostly controlled Cuba’s economy. Fidel Castro made several attempts at Coup’s to overthrow Cuba’s government, but did not succeed until 1958/59 Castro created a Socialist and Communist government, and the Cold War era US cut off relations. Today, diplomatic relations are strained and an Embargo prevents trade.