IBDP: Paper 1 Review
Peacemaking, Peacekeeping –
International Relations 1918-1936
Information!
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I need to know which AP Exams you are
taking
I need to know if you are going to take the
Final Exam in this class
Have you figured out what (A) days you
will be in school in May ???
Timeline
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1918 – World War I Armistice
1919 – Paris Peace Conference
Treaty of Versailles (Germany)
Treaty of St Germain (Austria)
Treaty of Neuilly (Bulgaria)
1920 – Treaty of Trianon (Hungary)
Treaty of Sevres (Turkey)
1st meeting of the League of Nations
Timeline
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Don’t forget the Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
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First federal parliamentary democratic gov’t proclaimed in
GER
Weimar Constitution made all men & women 20+ eligible to
vote
Faced many internal & int’l crises
Ended in 1933 w appt of Hitler as Chancellor & subsequent
passing of the Enabling Act
1921-1922 – Washington Naval Conference
1922 – Mussolini becomes Prime Minister of ITA
Treaty of Rapallo btw GER & RUS
1923 – Treaty of Lausanne (revised Tr of Sevres)
Timeline
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1924 – Dawes Plan
1925 – Locarno Treaties
1926 – GER admitted into the LoN
1928 – Kellogg-Briand Pact
1929 – Young Plan
Wall Street Crash
1930 – London Conference
1931 – JAP invades Manchuria (CHI)
1932 – Geneva Disarmament Conference
Timeline
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1933 – Hitler is appointed Chancellor of GER
JAP withdraws from the LoN
GER withdraws from Disarmament Conf
& LoN
1934 – The USSR admitted into the LoN
1935 – Stresa Conference
Anglo-GER Naval Agreement
Mussolini invades Abyssinia
1936 – GER remilitarizes the Rhineland
WWI (remember causes = MAIN)
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Central Powers
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Entente Powers (Allies)
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GER, AUS-HGR, BUL, TUR
GBR, FRA, RUS, later ITA, USA
Treaty of London (1915)
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Secret pact signed in April between ITA & the
Triple Entente which brought ITA into WWI in
exchange for the promise for extensive territorial
gains
The Treaties ending WWI
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Five total treaties were signed after WWI, the
most famous with GER (Treaty of Versailles)
However, an additional four were signed with
the other belligerents
Treaty of St Germain w AUS (1919)
Treaty of Trianon w HGRY (1920)
Treaty of Neuilly w BUL (1919)
Treaty of Sevres w TUR (1920) , later revised
by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
The Treaties ending WWI
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These treaties used the Treaty of Versailles w GER as a
template
All four defeated countries were to disarm, pay
reparations, and lose territory
New nations were set up
REMEMBER the before & after maps of EUR!
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Alsace & Lorraine back to FRA
Rhineland demilitarized; Saarland under League for 15 yrs
Poland
Czechoslovakia
Free city of Danzig
Yugoslavia
AUS & HGRY split
Serbia
Wilson and the Fourteen Points
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The Big Three – President Wilson (USA),
Premier Clemenceau (FRA), Prime Minister
Lloyd George (GBR)
‘Big Four’ – addition of Prime Minister Orlando
(ITA)
Wilson’s Fourteen Points aimed at eliminating
the causes of war:
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Proposed a new political & int’l world order
Open diplomacy, world disarmament, economic
integration
League of Nations
League of Nations (1920)
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Main aims were to promote international cooperation
and to achieve international peace & security
Collective security – idea that an organization of
sovereign states would guarantee to take joint action if
defense of one another against acts of aggression
Use moral persuasion, economic sanctions and then
military force (relying on member nations’ armies)
42 countries joined by July 1920, but notable
exceptions were US, GER, RUS (USSR)
Notable “quitters” were JAP (1933), GER (1933), ITA
(1937)
Wilson and the Fourteen Points
Why did it fail?
 Proposal for free trade, end of imperialism,
adoption of open diplomacy and League of
Nations clashed with the realist approach of
those who wanted to ensure their countries were
well prepared for the possibility of another war
 FRA wanted to be protected from future GER
aggression
 GBR wanted to avoid GER feelings for revenge
and was worried about Bolshevism in Russia
Wilson and the Fourteen Points
Why did it fail?
 ITA wanted territory to help recover
economically from the war (suffering political
problems and social unrest)
 There was little sympathy from the Big Three for
ITA partly due to their association with GER at
onset of WWI and their ‘contribution’ to the war
was seen as small
 ITA was upset that the terms of the Treaty of
London would not be honored & treatment as a
“lesser power”
Mandates
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Wilson’s Point Five addressed colonialism/imperialism
It acknowledged that colonialism had been a major
cause in the outbreak of WWI
Given that distributing the colonies of the defeated
nations among the victors would have gone against
Point Five, it was decided that the territories were to be
put under a mandate system of int’l administration
supervised by the League of Nations
Mandatory nations had a responsibility for the wellbeing of those living in the mandated territories
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GBR, FRA, South AFR, NZLD, AUS, JAP, BELG
Was the mandate system imperialism in disguise?
Washington Naval Agreements (1921-22)
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After WWI, the US embarked on a policy of
isolationism in international relations
Wilson was never able to ratify the Treaty of
Versailles and the Covenant of the League of
Nations (US signed a separate peace w GER)
Despite isolationism, Pres Harding convened the
WNA to discuss naval disarmament and
developments in the Far East
Attended by USA, GBR, FRA, JAP, ITA,
BELG, the Netherlands, POR, CHI
Washington Naval Agreements (1921-22)
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To what extent were the Washington Naval
Agreements successful?
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Was a first step toward application of disarmament
at an international level
Limited use of submarines in war & banned use of
poison gas in warfare
Did not prevent crises like JAP invasion of
Manchuria
Relative success due to small number of nations
Ruhr Crisis (1923)
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After GER failed to pay the reparations to FR, in
Dec 1922 the FR invaded the industrial area of
GER called the Ruhr Valley, adjacent to the
Rhineland, to ensure ‘payments in kind’ as
allowed by the Treaty of Versailles
GER responded with work stoppage & general
labor strikes, halting industrial production
The FR responded w a blockade in the area
This passive resistance and shortage of coal &
exports put the GER economy under serious
pressure, leading to hyperinflation of GER $
Results of the Ruhr Crisis
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Further social & political unrest in GER
Worsened economy of GER through
hyperinflationary economic policy
Made FR seem unreasonable and not capable of
keeping EUR stable
Worsened FR economy due to cost of
maintaining occupation of Ruhr Valley
Made clear that a review of GER reparations
was necessary
Dawes Plan (1924) & Young Plan (1929)
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The Dawes Plan presented a new schedule for the
payment of reparations & discussed the withdrawal of
FR troops in the Ruhr
GER reparation figures were not altered, but the annual
payments were reduced
US loans to GER enabled them to make reparation
pmts to GBR & FRA, who in turn could repay their war
debts to the US
The Young Plan reduced the total amount of GER
reparations
The Reparations Committee now could no longer
impose sanctions
The ‘Locarno Spring’ (1925)
The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
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The Locarno Pact was a series of treaties signed by
GER, FRA, BELG, GBR, and ITA
GER to accept the western border with FRA & BELG
in exchange for troops withdrawal from the Rhineland
FRA Foreign Minister Briand proposed a treaty to the
US to outlaw war to US Secty of State Kellogg –
became the Kellogg-Briand Pact and was extended to
more than 60 nations
Proved no more than ‘good intentions’ as, when JAP,
ITA & GER broke it, nothing was done
The Great Depression ended the atmosphere of
international cooperation
London Conference (1930) &
Geneva Disarmament Conference (1932-34)
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The London Conference aimed at taking further steps
in naval disarmament by including submarines and
smaller warships
The Geneva Disarmament Conference aimed at arms
reduction as a whole (not just naval)
Internationally, world suffering Great Depression
GER was looking to either make other signatory nations
reduce, or they should be able to increase, their
armaments
The Geneva Conference produced no results
Manchurian Crisis (1931-33)
Abysinnia Crisis (1935-36)
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These two crises really ended the ‘attempted’ era of
peace during the inter-war years
Manchurian Crisis ended JAP involvement in LoN
The Abyssinian Crisis led to ITA to withdraw from the
Stresa Front (GBR, FRA, ITA united against Hitler)
and join the Rome-Berlin Axis (cooperation of foreign
policies btw Hitler & Mussolini)
The LoN was exposed as politically-driven and
ineffective in collective security
Strategies to attack the Paper 1
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Questions 1a & 1b – (5 marks)
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Spend only 10 minutes answering!
Make as many points as there are marks
Question 2 – (6 marks)
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15 minutes!
Only 2 sources are used, so be even with your
approach – evaluate evenly
Intended for you to show your application and
interpretation of the sources
Strategies to attack the Paper 1
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Question 3 – (6 marks)
Again, only 15 minutes!
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Refer to all of O P V & L!!
Intended for you to show your synthesis and
evaluation of the sources
Question 4 – (8 marks)
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Save at least 20 minutes for this!
Comprehensive essay – intended for you to show
your knowledge, understanding, synthesis, &
evaluation of sources