Towards a Smarter Grid:
A Control Perspective
Professor, PhD, Jakob Stoustrup
Department of Electronic Systems,
Automation & Control
es.aau.dk/staff/jakob
Aalborg, Oct. 4, 2012
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Why we need smart grid control…
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Why we need new ctrl. architectures…
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Why we need short term control…
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Virtual Power Plants
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Hierarchical control of distributed
energy resources
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Ctrl of distributed energy resources
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Imbalance mitigation by DER ctrl
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Examples of Smart Grid Projects
@ Dept. Electronic Systems,
Automation & Control
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EDGE
SmartC2Net
IVIP
iPower
Smart & Cool
Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants
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EDGE: System Reserves
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EDGE
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SmartC2Net
 Enable robust smart grid control utilizing heterogeneous
third-party communication infrastructures
Challenges
 Variable communication
network performance
– caused by variable traffic load and
accidental faults
– affecting quality of input data
and timeliness of
control actions
 Security threats
– due to additional network
interfaces and
– the use of off-the-shelf
communication technology
SmartC2Net
SmartC2Net Consortium
8 partners from 6 European countries (AT, DK, GE, IT, PT, NL)
+ Expert Advisory Board (5 DSOs)
- 13 -
SmartC2Net
IFIV: Remote control of heat pumps for smart grid purposes
Purpose: to move consumption
according to wind power production.
Elspot prices and wind power
production correlates.
Balance Responsible Party (BRP)
optimize Elspot purchase based on
• Elspot price estimates
• Weather forecast
• House parameters
The BRP controls the individual heat pumps.
For each hour an amount of energy is bought in advance.
Each house is controlled by the VPP in order keep the house temperature within a predefined
band using the bought energy.
The VPP calculates the possible regulating power each hour.
Results
Tested on 6 inhabited single family houses.
Results for one house 18-19 April 2012 is
shown.
Spot plan power is the purchased energy for
the house.
Active plan power is the real time control
signal to the house.
Heat pump power is measured power from
the heat pump.
It is seen that the active plan is approximately
the same as the spot plan power.
The room temperature is within the comfort
bounds.
A low threshold value on the heated water
tank temperature forces additional heat pump
starts.
Participants
(opening)
Total 35 Partners ( 32 Legal entities)
22 Industrial companies
 9 SMV’s : (Develco Products, ENFOR Greentech Solutions, QEES,
Greenwave Reality, Zense Technology, Nilan, Saseco)
 6 following companies : ( Electronic Housekeeper, Gridmanager,
KPMG, Lodam Electronics, NeoGrid Technologies, Vestfrost Solutions)
 8 Large companies : DONG, Danfoss, Grundfos, Vestas, IBM, NEAS
(Nordjysk Elhandel), COWI, Balslev
10 Universities and Recognized institutes
4 Danish : AAU ( Allborg University), DTI (Teknologisk Institut), DSKD
(Kolding Designskole), DTU (Risoe, CET, IMM, MAN)
 5 International : (Lund, Dublin, Illinois, Berkley, National Consumer
Research Center -Finland)
 1 Organization : DE (Dansk Energi - DEFU)
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Project Packages overview
WP 0
Platform Management
• Basic research
• Business research
• IPR driven research
Jacob Østergaard
WP 1
Domestic Demand Response
WP 2
Industrial Demand Response
WP 3
Distribution Grid Operation
WP 4
Control and Market Operation
WP 5
Socio-economic and Investor Evaluation
WP 6
Consumer Behaviour
WP 7
Information Sharing Platform
Anders Troi
• Test and demonstration
• Networks
• Business models
Frank Elefsen
Smart & Cool: Adaptive balancing of consumption in
supermarkets
The overall goal of the project is to allow an increase in penetration of
wind energy in the power grid. This will be realized by the optimal
distribution of consumption in refrigeration systems and electricity
production.
Participants:
•DONG Energy
•Danfoss
•DTUIMM
•AAU, ES, Automation & Control
•KVCA
Size:
•4 PhD students
4 PhD students
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flexibility in energy consumption (cool) - at AAU
flexibility in consumption and production (cool-smart)
- at DTU
flexibility in energy production and consumption
(smart-cool) - at AAU
flexibility in energy production (smart) - at AAU
Market Integration of Virtual Power
Plants
Industrial PhD student: Mette Kirschmeyer
Petersen
Partners: DONG Energy, Aalborg University
Challenge: how
to aggregate
distributed
energy resources optimally
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Smart Grid Projects at Automation & Control

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