Chapter 22 Cross Cultural
Interactions 1000 - 1500 CE
1000 - 1500 people of Eastern
Hemisphere traded, communicated &
interacted as never before
• Mongols (pax Mongolica) create
conditions for overland trade
• Improvement in maritime & other
technologies led to increased traffic on
Indian Ocean.
Exchanges on Indian Ocean
and Silk Roads included
Religious faiths
Diseases (Different effects China &
Western Europe)
• Culture (troubadours see p. 575)
Travelers include:
• Marco Polo and other merchants
• Ibn Battuta and other Muslim scholars to
newly converted Muslim areas.
• Missionaries - Sufi, Catholic - failed among
Chinese and Mongols succeed in
Scandinavia, E. Europe, Spain.
• Diplomats to Europe from Mongols of Persia
Recovery in China: Ming
Dynasty 1368 - 1644
• After Mongols, Hongwu creates strongly
centralized state
• Reinstates Confucian system of exams
• Also use Mandarins and eunuchs
Ming economic & cultural
recovery from Mongols
• Forced peasant labor to rebuild infrastructure
• Promote production of: porcelain, silk,
laquerware, cotton textiles
• Chinese culture stressed - Yongle
Recovery in Western Europe:
State Building
• Review
• Italy, Spain HRE, France and England
• Direct taxes as new sources or revenue
• Standing armies
• Authority of central governments over
• Competition leads to small scale wars.
• States fund technology to improve
weapons and ships
The Renaissance - cultural flowering that
took place in Western Europe 14th - 16th
• Looked to Greece and Rome not
medieval world
• Also linked by trade and preference to
Eastern Hemisphere
• Admired realism
• This worldly not other worldly
• Man is the measure of all things
• Vernacular
Begins in Italian City States
especially Florence
• Humanist literature
• Know people discussed on p. 582 - 584
• Linear perspective
Linear Perspective
Alberti Grid
Doge Ruler of Venice (left) Bellini’s
Portrait of Maryam (an exemplary
“Muslim” Woman”
Brunelleschi Sacrestia
Vecchia di San Lorenzo
Brunelleschi’s Dome in
Michelangelo (Pieta in Rome)
& Botticelli
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
His Sistine Chapel “Creation”
Exploration and Colonization: Recovery
from the Plague -China and W. Europe
• Early Ming emperors allow foreign
merchants to trade in Guangzhou &
• Chinese silk, porcelain & manufactured
goods for gems, spices, fabrics
• Zheng He’s voyages 1405 - 1433
• Why do the Chinese pull the plug - what
did this mean for history
Zheng He - Muslim Eunuch
Chinese and European Ships
Unlike Chinese who sailed for diplomatic,
political and military influence W. Europeans
sought profit and an expansion of Catholicism
• Portugal - Henry the Navigator. To
Ceuta, Maldives, Cape Verde, Sao
• Bring slaves from W. Africa to Atlantic
islands for heavy labor on plantations.
This leads to Atlantic slave trade
From Europe Around Africa to
Indian Ocean
• Entrance of Portuguese into Indian
Oceans signals the beginning of
European Imperialism in Asia.
• Columbus to New World

Chapter 22 Cross Cultural Interactions 1000