Building Owners
Roofing System
Inspection and
Maintenance
Why Inspect and Maintain
the Roofing System?
• Periodic inspection and maintenance is needed
in order for the roof to perform as designed.
• Inspection and maintenance is typically
required by roofing manufacturers to keep
roofing warranties in full force and effect.
Proactive vs Reactive
Maintenance
• Reactive Maintenance: is a response to
a existing problem:
– Leaks
– Repairs after damage due to weather events
– Changes in the rooftop (relocated RTUs, new
adjacent construction, etc.)
Proactive vs Reactive
Maintenance
• Proactive Maintenance: stopping potential problems
before they impact the roofing system - can create
significant savings and extend the service life of the
roofing system:
The above cost analysis was prepared by a development firm owning in excess of 550 million square feet of
commercial space.
When Should the Roof Be
Inspected?
• Make a roof inspection plan part of the
overall maintenance of the facility
– Schedule regular inspections by on-site facility
management team
– Schedule twice-annual inspections by Roofing
Professionals
– Inspect following weather events (wind, hail,
etc.)
– Inspect when leaks or damage occurs
Who Should Perform the
Inspection?
• The local facility staff can perform casual
inspections:
– Observe and record the status of the roofing
system.
– Use data gathered to direct a Roofing Professional
to problem areas
• A Roofing Professional should perform a
thorough inspection:
– At least twice a year.
– Whenever repairs is required.
Who Should Perform
Maintenance?
• Local facility management staff:
– Clean single-ply membranes
– Remove debris, especially from
drains/scuppers/gutters
– Locate areas of damage/leaks and safely mark them
• Roofing Professionals:
– Repair leaks and perform reactive maintenance
– Perform proactive maintenance
– Provide estimates for future roofing maintenance
needs
– Use manufacturer-licensed roofing contractors
to protect your warranty
Inspection Checklists
Where to Look - What to Look For Remedial Actions
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Rooftop Traffic Areas
Contaminants
Drainage Components
Wind Storm Damage
Moisture Infiltration
Roof Membrane Seams
Base Attachments
Rooftop Traffic Areas
• Where to Look:
– Roof Hatch area or roof access points
– Walkways and “natural” paths
– Mechanical Equipment
Displaced walkway pads
• What to Look For:
– Cuts & punctures
– Compressed/crushed insulation
– Always monitor and log rooftop traffic
Rooftop Traffic Areas
• Remediation:
– Emergency repair of cuts and punctures
• Duct tape open areas of single-ply
membrane/flashing
• Seal open asphalt membrane with plastic roof
cement
• Cover repaired area with tarp if possible
– Permanent repair of cuts and punctures
• Contact manufacturer’s licensed Roofing Professional
– Crushed insulation
• Have Roofing Professional replace with new
insulation
Rooftop Traffic Areas
• Preventative Actions:
– Add or enhance Roof Walkways
– Register all rooftop traffic on a Roof Access
Log
Keep debris cleared!
(…always remove ducks…!)
Contaminants
Membrane split
Membrane swelling
Contaminants
• Where to Look:
– Kitchen Exhaust Fans
– HVAC Compressors
Membrane swelling
Contaminants
• Remediation:
– Membrane which has cracked, split, or swelled
should be replaced by a Roofing Professional
• Preventative Actions:
– If grease traps are not present, consider
installing grease traps
– If sacrificial layer of membrane is not present,
consider installing additional layer over
waterproofing layer
Drainage Components
Roof Drain & Overflow Drain
blocked by debris
Open scupper flashings
Drainage Components
Blocked Drain
Debris in gutter, broken gutter straps,
open fastener holes
Drainage Components
• Where to Look:
• Mid-span of Roof Beams & Joists
• Around Rooftop Units (RTUs)
• At Drains, Scupper, Gutters, Downspouts
• What to Look For:
• Debris
• “Ponding,” Sagging, or Deflection
• Discoloration at Curbs and Walls
• Damage to Drainage Components
Drainage Components
• Remediation:
– Remove Debris - bag and dispose
– Drainage components – have Roofing Professional
replace defective drainage components and flash
them, according to manufacturer’s approved
details.
Blocked Drain
Drainage Components
• Preventative Actions:
– Add roof drains
– Add Tapered Insulation (“saddles and
crickets”)
– Add a redundant layer of membrane
Wind Damage
Wind Damage
Displaced Insulation Boards
“Tented” and Backed-Out
Fasteners
Wind Damage
• Where to Look:
– Roof Edge – metal, gutters, downspouts
– Rooftop Units
– Roof Membrane surface
– Flashings – metal and membrane flashings
Damaged Metal Coping
Wind Damage
What to Look For:
• All Systems:
– Loose or missing sheet metal flashing components, especially
at the roof edge
– Deflection or distortion of insulation boards
– Large cuts or slices in the roof membrane
• Ballasted systems – displaced rock/pavers,
displaced insulation boards under membrane
• Adhered systems – disbonded membrane, “tented”
fasteners and plates
• Mechanically Attached systems – “tented”
fasteners
Wind Damage
Disbonded Membrane, Failed
Base Attachments
“Tented” Fasteners
Wind Damage
• Remediation:
– Remove all debris
– Replace any displaced ballast – carefully to
avoid puncture
– Seal small cuts and punctures
– Have Roofing Professional resecure detached
flashings and sheet metal
– Have Roofing Professional make permanent
repairs to membrane and reinstall/replace
displaced/damaged insulation
Wind Damage
Damaged Metal Coping
Displaced Ballast
Wind Damage
• Preventative Actions:
– Add additional roof ballast to ballasted systems
– Review roofing system design – have a Roof
Consultant, engineer, or architect review the
design and recommend changes to protect
against future wind damage
Moisture Infiltration
• Where to Look:
• Building Walls and Parapets
• Large RTUs
• Skylights
Moisture infiltrating around
RTU
Moisture Infiltration
• What to Look For:
–
–
–
–
–
–
“Soft” Roof Insulation
Cracking, Spalling, or Discoloration of Walls
Loose Metal Wall Flashings
Covered “Weep Holes”
Missing or Broken Weather Seals on RTU s
Cracked or Sunken Sealants/Caulking
Moisture Infiltration
• Remediation:
– Replace wet roof insulation (should only be performed by
a Roofing Professional)
– Reattach and re-seal/caulk metal components (either by
Roofing Professional or trade professional)
– Repair deteriorated walls, parapets, substrates (should be
performed by trade professional)
Moisture stain on parapet
wall
Moisture Infiltration
• Preventative Actions:
– Have a Roof Consultant perform a Moisture
Survey (Thermal Imaging, and/or core cuts)
– Keep RTUs sealed to manufacturer’s standards
– Log access to roof by RTU/HVAC maintainers
Moisture Scan Image
Roof Membrane Seams
• Where to Look:
– T-Joints
(membrane panel
intersections)
– Angle changes
(such as deck-towall)
• What to Look For:
– Edge cavitation
– Entrapped
moisture
“Fishmouth” in seam
Roof Membrane Seams
• Remediation (Emergency Repairs):
– Modified Bitumen (asphalt) Systems:
• Apply plastic roof cement to the seam edge
– Single-Ply Systems:
• Gently clean the area, then cover the seam edge with
duct tape extending 1.0” in all directions from seam
opening
• Remediation (Permanent Repairs)
– Should only be made by Roofing Professionals
Open Lap
Base Attachments
Failed Base Attachment
Membrane “Bridging”
Base Attachments
• Where to Look:
– Parapet Walls and Equipment Curbs
– Roof Edge
• What to Look For:
– “Bridging” – membrane pulled away from the
90-degree angle change or greater than 2:12,
forming an angled “bridge” from horizontal to
vertical
– Loose or “Tented” Fasteners
Base Attachments
• Remediation:
– Emergency Repair:
• If a leak is present, seal
the area with duct tape
(single-ply systems) or
plastic roof cement
(asphalt systems)
– Permanent repair:
• Base Tie-In and
Membrane should be
reattached and restored
by a Roofing Professional
Membrane Bridging
Roofing Inspection Checklist
for use by on-site Facilities Managers
• See Page 13 of the “Firestone Inspection, Repair,
and Maintenance Guide” for a reproducible Roofing
Inspection Checklist to carry to the rooftop.
• Checklist contains a brief description of what to
look for in all of the above conditions.
• Note “Conditions Observed,” and “Actions
Recommended” on the Checklist, along with the
location of the problem area.
• Reference completed Checklist when contact
Roofing Manufacturer to report a leak or problem
with the roofing system.
Roofing Inspection Checklist
Guide to Common Repair Methods
• See the “Firestone
Inspection,
Maintenance, and
Repair Guide,”
Section II, for
drawings and
explanations of what
quality repairs by a
Roofing Professional
should look like.
Service Requests/Leak
Reports
• Firestone Warranty Services
– 1-800-830-5612 - Line answered 24/7
– Fax information to 1-317-575-7210
– Email information to
[email protected]
Service Requests/Leak
Reports
• Provide the following information:
– Building Name and Address
– Building Owner Name
– Name of contact on-site, fax number, and
phone number
– Warranty Number (printed on front of warranty)
– Date when leak was observed
– Description of leak or issue
Fax Notification Form
Warranted Repairs
• Firestone issues a “Warranty Service Work
Order” to the original installing contractor.
• Building Owner or on-site contact is faxed
an acknowledgement letter with roofing
contractor’s contact information
• Contractor will investigate and complete
necessary repairs within 10 working days
Non-Warranted Repairs
• Roofing System Warranties typically cover
repair of leaks
• Most other conditions are non-warranted
• Building Owner is responsible for payment of
investigation and repair of non-warranted
conditions
Questions?
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