Chapter 3, Section 2
1368-1644
• Drove out Mongol Rulers
• Ruled China peacefully
• Tribute/ payment from vassal states
Son of a
peasant
 Led the rebel
army against
the Mongols
in 1368
 First emperor
of the Ming
dynasty

Reforms China
Restored farmland
Respected Chinese traditions
Return to the Confucism
HOWEVER – eventually became a
ruthless tyrant
Chinese
Exploration
Yonglo - next
emperor in 1398
 Continued his
father’s policies
 Fascinated with
the outside world
 1405 
launched the 1st of
7 voyages of
exploration
 All voyages led
by Chinese Muslim
admiral, Zheng He
Early voyages to
Southeast Asia and India
 Made it to Arabia and
eastern Africa
 Impressed the world
with China’s power
 Voyages had 40-300
ships / up to 27,000 men
in the crew

• Zheng He gave exotic gifts to show China’s
superiority.
• 16 new countries paid tribute to the Ming court
• 1433  last voyage  China withdrew into selfsufficient isolation
China rejects
industrialization
 Chinese merchants
smuggle goods to
Europeans
 European Christian
missionaries try to convert

1644-1911
• Ming Dynasty weakens after over 200 years of
rule
• Manchurian people invaded China  Ming
Dynasty collapsed
• Manchu leader became emperor = Qing
Dynasty
• Ruled over 260 years
• Expanded territory
QING DYNASTY
MING DYNASTY
• Resistance from Chinese people
• Manchus slowly earned respect
• Upheld Confucian beliefs and social
structures
• Kangxi = became emperor in 1661;
ruled for 60 years
• Reduced government expenses and
lowered taxes
• Qian-long ruled 1736 – 1795
• Greatest size and prosperity under
Qian-long’s rule
Expect Europeans to pay
tribute and respect Chinese
tradition
 Dutch comply  Diplomats
perform the “kowtow” ritual
 1793  British Lord George
Macartney refused to
kowtow Qian-long denied
Britain’s request for trade
agreements

Chapter 3, Section 3
1467 - 1867
• Daimyo establish a new feudal system
• Constant disorder and chaos in Japan
• Oda Nobunaga seized imperial Kyoto in 1568 – ruled a nonunified Japan until 1582
• Toyotomi Hideyoshi takes over – tries to conquer China and
Korea until 1598
• Tokugawa Ieyasu unifies Japan
• “Take care of the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to
protect the country.” = Stability in Japan under the Tokugawa
Shogunate
The Japanese
Societal
Hierarchy
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Chapter 3_ Section 2 and 3