6
Performing
Apparatus
Check-Out
and
Maintenance
6
Knowledge Objectives (1 of 4)
• Describe the inspection and maintenance
procedures required by your fire department.
• Describe the inspection and maintenance
procedures recommended by the manufacturer
on each of the fire apparatus that you will be
required to inspect, test, or maintain.
• Describe the items on the written inspection and
maintenance forms required to be completed by
your fire department.
6
Knowledge Objectives (2 of 4)
• Describe the procedures to be followed when an
inspection reveals maintenance problems
beyond the scope of the driver/operator’s
abilities.
• Describe the type of problems found during the
inspection and routine maintenance of fire
apparatus that warrant taking the fire apparatus
or equipment out of service.
• Describe the equipment carried on fire
apparatus that requires inspection and
maintenance.
6
Knowledge Objectives (3 of 4)
• Describe the routine maintenance
procedures or adjustments to be
completed by the driver/operator.
• Describe the maintenance procedures and
items that will be performed by specially
trained personnel other than the
driver/operator.
• Describe the process to initiate required
maintenance procedures.
6
Knowledge Objectives (4 of 4)
• Describe the schedule for routine
inspection and maintenance procedures
for all fire apparatus and equipment that
the driver/operator will be responsible for
inspecting, maintaining, or testing.
6
Skills Objectives
• Perform the daily inspection of fire
apparatus and equipment in a safe and
effective manner.
6
Introduction (1 of 4)
• Driver/operator duties
– Safely drive apparatus
– Operate equipment on apparatus
– Inspect and maintain apparatus
6
Introduction (2 of 4)
• Apparatus must be ready to respond and
perform on the emergency scene as it was
designed.
– Apparatus equipped with pump must be
capable of flowing water at required
pressures.
6
Introduction (3 of 4)
• Quality preventive maintenance program
ensures that:
– Apparatus are adequately maintained by
qualified and trained personnel.
– Vehicles are inspected regularly by those who
use them.
– Documentation is accurate and complete.
6
Introduction (4 of 4)
• Many departments perform inspections at
least daily.
– Apparatus must be maintained and ready to
respond to emergencies on a moment’s
notice.
– Safety is the most important and obvious
reason for regular inspections.
6
Inspection (1 of 10)
• Inspection involves an evaluation of the
apparatus and equipment to ensure safe
operation.
– Inspection should be planned, methodical, and
performed in an organized manner.
– Driver/operators conduct inspections:
• At the start of the shift
• When apparatus is being put into service after
repairs
• After a large incident when apparatus was used
extensively at an emergency scene
6
Inspection (2 of 10)
• Inspection process
identifies deficiencies
with apparatus or
equipment that might
limit apparatus from
performing as required.
• Most inspections are
performed by one
qualified individual. This
ensures accuracy and
thoroughness.
6
Inspection (3 of 10)
• Driver/operator must have a basic
knowledge and skills related to vehicle
maintenance to perform the inspection.
– Driver/operator should be able to identify
problems before they become critical safety
issues.
– Refer to the department’s inspection
procedures before attempting repairs to the
apparatus.
6
Inspection (4 of 10)
• Conducting an inspection
requires basic vehicle
maintenance equipment
and tools.
– Every station should have
the basic tools to aid in
performing an inspection.
– Driver/operator should
have access to
replacement fluids to
maintain the fluid levels of
the apparatus.
6
Inspection (5 of 10)
• Driver/operator performing inspections,
tests, and maintenance must know the
department operating procedures plus the
apparatus manufacturer’s
recommendations.
– NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire
Apparatus, requires the manufacturer to
provide documentation for the entire
apparatus and each operating system.
6
Inspection (6 of 10)
• Documentation includes:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Manufacturer’s name and address
Country of manufacture
Source of service and technical information
Parts replacement information
Descriptions and specifications of parts
Wiring diagrams for low-voltage and line-voltage
systems
– Lubrication charts
– Operating instructions
6
Inspection (7 of 10)
• Documentation includes (continued):
– Instructions regarding frequency and
procedure for maintenance
– Overall fire apparatus operating instructions
– Safety considerations
– Limitations of use
– Inspection procedures
6
Inspection (8 of 10)
• Documentation includes (continued):
– Recommended service procedures
– Troubleshooting guide
– Fire apparatus component warranties
– Copies of required manufacturer test data or
reports
– MSDS for fluid specified for use on apparatus
6
Inspection (9 of 10)
• Driver/operator should use department’s
procedures and manufacturer’s
recommendations to help properly
maintain apparatus
– Specific fluids are required to ensure proper
functioning.
– Driver/operator must adhere to the
manufacturer’s specification when adding
fluids or he/she risks damaging the
equipment.
6
Inspection (10 of 10)
• Driver/operator must have
tasks made clear and well
understood before inspecting
the apparatus.
– Driver/operator must consider
safety.
– Each department is responsible
for training members on how to
inspect the apparatus safely and
thoroughly.
– Always wear proper PPE during
the inspection.
6
Inspection Process (1 of 7)
• Review the inspection form completed
after the previous inspection.
– Inspection form is essential for maintaining an
accurate record of apparatus condition.
– Document identifies who did inspection and
when.
– Report identifies damaged or repaired
equipment and other preventive maintenance
performed.
6
Inspection Process (2 of 7)
Month
Ending Miles
Year
Ending hours
Apparatus #
Starting Miles
Starting hours
Daily Checks
Initials
Primary / Daily Checks
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Visual / Tire Condition Check
Cab / Seatbelts / Fuel Level
Passports / Portables / Radios
Engine Oil / Belts / Radiator
CAFS oil / Foam level
Lights / Siren / Horn
Water Tank Level
Breathing Apparatus
KB Keys/Maps/Resource Books
Defibrillator
General Equipment
Weekly Checks
System
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
System
A.T.F.
S uspension
Power steering
Transfer Case
Brake Fluid / Air
Pump Operation
Bleed Air Tanks
Water Lines
Charge Gauge
Relief Valve
Oil Gauge
Primer Fluid Level
Thermostat Gauge
Ladders / Ropes
Windows / Wipers
Tire Pressures
Batteries ( page 2 )
Front Tires
Warning Devices
Inside/Outside Duals
Undercarriage
Left Duals
Right Duals
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Left Right Left Right Left Right Left Right Left Right
In
Out In
Out In
Out In
Out In
Out
6
Inspection Process (3 of 7)
• Bothell Fire and EMS attaches an
inspection form to a clipboard and stores it
on the apparatus.
– Driver/operators from different shifts should
communicate about the apparatus and problems
at morning tie-in.
– Taken with previous information, the current
inspection could reveal a need for a qualified
person to inspect the vehicle for defects.
6
Inspection Process (4 of 7)
• Perform the actual inspection of the
apparatus.
– Investigation may take time depending on the
size and complexity of apparatus and
components.
– Perform inspections systematically.
– While conducting the inspection, the
apparatus should be in a safe area.
• Parked on a flat, level surface
6
Inspection Process (5 of 7)
• During the inspection, thoroughly
document findings on the inspection
report.
– Ensure the documentation is as accurate as
possible and no items are overlooked.
– Most items are inspected visually.
• Look for signs of damage, excessive wear, or
defects.
– Some items must be operated during inspection
to ensure proper functioning.
6
Inspection Process (6 of 7)
• Driver/operator who visually inspects and
operates the equipment during every shift
will become familiar with the apparatus
and its normal condition.
– Driver/operator will recognize break downs or
maintenance needs and can recommend
repairs when necessary.
– Use the department’s policies regarding
apparatus inspections as a guide.
6
Inspection Process (7 of 7)
• After completing the inspection, review the
report and make sure nothing was missed.
– Many departments require members to
complete the inspection by a certain time
each day.
– Take the inspection seriously.
– Failure to complete a thorough inspection
may result in an unsafe apparatus on the road
and at the emergency scene.
6
Fire Apparatus Sections (1 of 3)
• The inspection is broken into sections.
– Lets the driver/operator focus on a single
aspect of the apparatus and discourages
jumping around without a plan
– Jumping around randomly leads to the
possibility of missing critical elements.
– Driver/operator should use a system or
sequence recommended by the department.
6
Fire Apparatus Sections (2 of 3)
• The Fire Department pumper is broken
into six sections.
• Sections are inspected in order unless
otherwise stated by the department.
– The most common method is starting at the
drivers door and working in a counterclockwise direction.
6
Fire Apparatus Sections (3 of 3)
• Order of inspection
– Exterior inspection
– Engine compartment
– Cab interior
– Brake inspection
– General tools/equipment
inspection
– Pump inspection
6
Exterior Inspection (1 of 5)
• Physically walk around and look at the general
condition.
– Is the apparatus clean and well maintained or worn
and in need of repairs?
– Inspect compartment doors, hinges, and latches for
proper operation.
• Tires are critical to proper stability, stopping
capability, and ability to carry loads.
– Look for cuts, cracks, and fabric showing through the
tread or sidewall.
6
Exterior Inspection (2 of 5)
• Valve stems on all tires should be
accessible and devoid of cracks and cuts.
– Valve caps should be securely fastened.
– Size and make of tires should match the
manufacturer’s recommendations.
• Refer to manufacturer’s recommendations
for appropriate tire pressures.
– Use a pressure gauge to check the pressure.
6
Exterior Inspection (3 of 5)
• A damaged wheel or rim can make the tire
lose pressure or slip off.
– Look for dents or large scratches.
– Wheels should not be missing clamps, spacers,
studs, lugs, or protective covers.
• Power steering system reduces the effort
required to steer the vehicle.
– Look for bent, loose, or broken parts.
– Inspect the amount of free play in the steering
wheel.
6
Exterior Inspection (4 of 5)
6
Exterior Inspection (5 of 5)
• Suspension system keeps the vehicle’s axles
in place and holds up the apparatus and load.
– Inspect the frame assembly to ensure that no
parts are cracked, loose, broken, or missing.
• Visually inspect the exhaust system for loose,
broken, or missing mounting brackets or
parts.
• Fuel cap should be securely fastened to
prevent spillage or fumes leaking from tank.
6
Engine Compartment (1 of 9)
• On most apparatus, the driver/operator
needs to raise the cab to inspect most
portions of the engine, including belts,
hoses, and fan blades.
• Older apparatus may not have an access
door through which to check fluids.
• Always make sure loose items are
secured prior to lifting the cab.
6
Engine Compartment (2 of 9)
6
Engine Compartment (3 of 9)
• Inspect the engine compartment while the
engine is off.
– Examine for fluid leaks; broken, cracked, or
damaged hoses; and electrical wiring showing
signs of wear, chaffing, or damage from heat.
• Driver/operator may be required to
maintain appropriate fluid levels in the
apparatus.
– Do not rely solely on sensors to give an accurate
reading of the fluid level.
6
Engine Compartment (4 of 9)
• Check engine oil level with dip
stick after the engine has been off
for 15+ minutes.
– Delay lets oil settle and gives an
accurate reading
• Coolant level should be checked
as recommended by the
manufacturer.
• Most systems provide an exterior
coolant reservoir marked with the
appropriate level.
6
Engine Compartment (5 of 9)
• Use caution when removing the radiator
cap as coolant may be under pressure and
hot.
• Power steering system fluid is checked the
same as engine oil.
• Transmission fluid is inspected while the
engine is running.
– Park the vehicle in neutral.
– Use a dip stick similar to when checking the oil.
6
Engine Compartment (6 of 9)
• Other fluid levels are
checked by the fire
department mechanic
periodically. Refer to the
manufacturer’s
recommendations for
correct fluid levels.
– Rear differential fluid (axle)
– Hydraulic oil
– Pump gear box oil levels
6
Engine Compartment (7 of 9)
• Belts that drive the engine components and
other equipment may loosen due to wear.
– Alternators, power steering pump, air compressor
– Check the tension by pushing against the belt
where there is no pulley.
• Examine the apparatus’s batteries for
corrosion on terminals where wires connect
to battery post.
– Remove corrosion by scraping with a wire brush.
6
Engine Compartment (8 of 9)
• Physically removing an electrical wire
connection from a terminal is normally
done by a mechanic trained to perform the
task.
– Improperly removing battery cables could
cause severe damage.
• Driver/operator may check voltage levels
by observing the voltage meter on the
dashboard.
6
Engine Compartment (9 of 9)
6
Cab Interior (1 of 5)
• Check that all cab-mounted equipment is
present.
– Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
– Maps
– Traffic vests
– Hearing protection
– Medical gloves
– Box lights
6
Cab Interior (2 of 5)
• Check for worn or torn seats, cushions,
dashboards, and headliners.
– Ensure all seat belts function properly and are
free of cuts and frays.
• Apparatus controls in cab interior
– Observe gauges measuring oil pressure,
electrical system, engine temperature, and air
pressure.
– Adjust seats, mirrors, and get familiar with
functional controls.
6
Cab Interior (3 of 5)
6
Cab Interior (4 of 5)
• Make sure all gauges indicate a
performance within normal operating
ranges.
• Interior functional control switches: heater,
air conditioner, defroster, map lights, dash
lights, radio, and other devices
– All should be inspected to ensure correct
operation.
6
Cab Interior (5 of 5)
• Exterior functional control switches: items
outside the cab but operated from the inside
– Emergency lights, headlights, directional lights,
brake lights, side marker lights, spotlights, and
taillights
– All lights should be clean and operate correctly.
• Check mirrors, windows, and windshield
– All windows should be clean and free of cracks.
– Check windshield wipers and fluid level.
6
Brake Inspection (1 of 4)
• Give brakes special attention when
performing the inspection.
• Inspect brakes for:
– Cracked drums or rotors
– Shoes or pads contaminated with oil,
grease, or brake fluid
– Shoes or pads worn dangerously thin,
missing, or broken
6
Brake Inspection (2 of 4)
• Parking brake test
– Allow the running apparatus to move forward
at less than 5 mi/h (8 km/h).
– Apply the parking brake.
– If apparatus does not stop, have it inspected.
• Brake pedal test
– Accelerate to 5 mi/h (8 km/h).
– Push brake pedal firmly.
– If there are problems, have it inspected.
6
Brake Inspection (3 of 4)
• Dual air brake system warning light and
buzzer test
– Turn on the apparatus and allow time for the
air compressor to build up to at least 100 psi
(690 kPa).
– Shut off the engine.
– Leave the battery in the “on” position and step
on and off the brake pedal.
– An alarm should signal before the pressure
drops below 60 psi (414 kPa) in the air tank.
6
Brake Inspection (4 of 4)
• Spring brake test
– Ensures the parking brake operates as
designed
– Release the parking brake by depressing the
knob.
– Step on and off the brake pedal.
– The parking brake knob should activate when
the pressure drops below 40 psi (258 kPa).
– Spring brakes will activate and help prevent
the vehicle from moving.
6
General Tools/Equipment Inspection
(1 of 3)
• Inspect all equipment on the apparatus to
make sure it is operational.
– Breathing apparatus, generators, fans,
hydraulic rescue tools, hand tools, power
tools, hose, nozzles, ground ladders
• Power tools should be checked for oil level
and fuel supply.
6
General Tools/Equipment Inspection
(2 of 3)
6
General Tools/Equipment Inspection
(3 of 3)
• Many apparatus carry
equipment that needs
recharging.
– An apparatus not operated
for an extended duration
may have batteries drained
of power by the ongoing
recharging of equipment
stored on board.
– Keep the vehicle’s
batteries properly charged
at all times.
6
Pump Inspection (1 of 6)
• Pump inspection process includes:
– Water supply tank
– Foam supply tank
– Intakes and discharges
– Primer pump
– Centrifugal fire pump
• Visually inspect the water supply tank,
even if it has a gauge.
– Always visually confirm the water tank is full.
6
Pump Inspection (2 of 6)
• Check the foam tank levels
in an apparatus equipped
with foam systems.
• Check the floor under the
apparatus for water before
opening any valve and
allow the water to drain.
– A puddle or dripping may
indicate a loose pump seal
or other leak.
6
Pump Inspection (3 of 6)
• Pumps may be kept dry during the winter
months in cold-weather areas.
• While the pump is not engaged, open and
close each discharge valve several times
to ensure proper operation.
– Confirm all caps are easily operated and free
of corrosion.
• Inspect intakes by removing plugs, caps,
or PIV and visually inspect piping.
6
Pump Inspection (4 of 6)
• Intake strainers are located at
the front of all intakes directly
on the pump.
– Small screens prevent damagecausing debris from entering.
• Apparatus with a centrifugal
pump will have a priming pump.
– Oil reservoir of priming pump
must be checked daily.
6
Pump Inspection (5 of 6)
• If the priming pump is wet, a stream of
water should be observed within seconds.
– If pump is being carried dry, no water should
be seen.
• If the priming pump is being carried wet,
after operating pump valves and
components, start the apparatus engine
and engage the pump in the appropriate
gear.
6
Pump Inspection (6 of 6)
• Do not operate the pump for more than a
few minutes without circulating water back
to the tank or other discharge line.
6
Safety (1 of 4)
• It is critical to perform the apparatus
inspection safely and to ensure the
apparatus is prepared for a safe response.
• The final part of the safety evaluation
focuses on making sure the apparatus is
safe to ride on and to operate.
– Secure all tools and equipment, breathing
apparatus, equipment on the compartment
shelves, and equipment on the outside of the
apparatus.
6
Safety (2 of 4)
• Final part of the safety evaluation
(continued)
– Hose lines should be loaded and ready for
deployment.
– Securely nest ground ladders.
– Secure all doors and lids.
6
Safety (3 of 4)
6
Safety (4 of 4)
• Daily, weekly, or other periodic inspection
items
• Completing forms
– Forms recording inspection and maintenance
are filled out as the inspection process
occurs.
– At the end of the inspection, forms are
completed and filed according to the
department’s procedures.
– Report abnormalities to the officer in charge.
6
Summary (1 of 2)
• Apparatus inspection evaluates the apparatus
and its equipment to ensure safe operation.
• Inspection should be planned, methodical, and
performed in an organized manner.
• The inspection process should begin with a
review of the inspection form completed after the
previous inspection.
• Ensure the apparatus is prepared for a safe
response.
6
Summary (2 of 2)
• Dividing the inspection into sections allows
the fire fighter to focus on a single aspect
of the apparatus.
• Make sure the apparatus is in proper
working condition, emergency warning
equipment is operating, tools and
equipment are functional, and the vehicle
is ready for sustained operations.
6
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Performing Apparatus Check-Out and Maintenance