Unit 7
THE Glorious Messiness of English
Churchill set the tone of his leadership in his
first report to the House of Commons, " I
would say to the House, as I said to
those who have joined the government I
have nothing to offer but blood, toil,
tears, and sweat."
It was only the first of his stirring wartime
speeches, which knit the country together
and inspired people around the world.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
(November 30, 1874 -January 24, 1965)
Political Party: Conservative
Official Title: Prime minister
Term : 1940-1945 Prime minister of the United
Kingdom
1951- 1955 Prime minister of the United
Kingdom
Known for: Leading the United Kingdom and the
Allies to victory in World War II.
Award:
Quote
1953 Nobel Prize in literature
"I have nothing to offer but blood, toil,
tears and sweat." May 13, 1940; part of
Churchill's first speech as prime minister
to the House of Commons.
Important Works
The World Crisis
The Second World War
History of the English Speaking Peoples
Old English Period(AD449 to 1066 or 1100)
Middle English ( 1066 or 1100 to 1450 or
1500)
Early Modern English( about 1500 to 1660),
Late Modern English (about 1660 to the
present time)
Pidgin English
DESCRIPTIVE AND COMPARATIVE
LINGUISTICS
A Descriptive Linguistics
phonemes (distinctive sounds): /p/ and /b/,
Morphemes: sounds combined to create, or units of
sound that carry meaning: push and bush.
or prefixes (pre- in preview) and suffixes (ness in openness).
In the sentence
“She pushed the bush.”
 the morpheme she, a pronoun, is the
subject;
 push, a transitive verb, is the verb;
 the, a definite article, is the determiner;
bush, a noun, is the object.
phonemics (finding phonemes), morphology
(discovering morphemes), and syntax
(describing the order of morphemes and
their function)
Comparative linguistics
Comparative linguistics is the study and
analysis, by means of written records, of
the origins and relatedness of different
languages.
the Sanskrit word bhratar for “brother”
resembles the Latin word frater, the
Greek word phrater, (and the English word
brother).
Fraternity --sorority
The Indo-European, relating Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, German, English, and other Asian and
European languages;
The Algonquian, relating Fox, Cree, Menomini,
Ojibwa, and other Native North American
languages;
The Bantu, relating Swahili, Xhosa, Zulu,
Kikuyu, and other African languages.
Sociolinguistics
Psycholinguistics
Computational Linguistics
Applied Linguistics
Anthropological Linguistics
Neurolinguistics
Ferdinand de Saussure
Cours de linguistique générale (1916; Course
in General Linguistics, 1959). is considered
the foundation of the modern field of
linguistics. Saussure made a distinction
between actual speech, or spoken language,
and the knowledge underlying speech that
speakers share about what is grammatical.
Noam Chomsky
transformational-generative grammar
-ough
bough
Plough
Cough
Thorough
Thought
Through
rough
Historical Words
Nixon’s Odyssey to China.
Quixotic (Cervantes’s Don Quixote)
Utopian
The US is raising a Frankenstein by providing
hardware to that country.
Faustian ----- Faustian Spirit
The pickets did not allow themselves to be
provoked, despite the unruly crowds that
gathered to hector them.
Backformation:
Burgle
Swindle
Peddle
Emote
Orate
Reminisce
Enthuse
Diagnose
Coze
Peeve
editor---edit
 Who authed this
 He decided to bach it all his life (bachelor)
 I prefer a polygamist who doesn’t polyg to
a monogamist who doesn’t monog.
 The tourists can helicopt to Jiuzhaigou.
房地产类: “期房”、“商住楼”、“商品房”,
比如教育类的“雅思”、“司考”,
军事类: “天军”、“海警”,
环保类: “阳伞效应”、“代际公平”、“代内公
平
时尚类: “哈日”、“韩流”、“波波族”。正是
鉴于
The issue of insanity as a defense in criminal
cases is at the interface of medicine, law
and ethics.
The delegation is composed of people from a
wide spectrum of professions.
安可:(港台)重复一次,来自英语的encore。
逼力:(港)刹车,来自英语的brake。
波打:(港台)葡萄牙产的葡萄酒。来自英语的
port。
波楼:(港)台球房,来自英语的poolroom。
卜非:(台)自助餐,来自英语的buffet。
乐透:(台)彩票,乐透来自英的lottery。
多妈多:(台)炸面包圈,来自英语的tomato。
福传:(台)一种计算机程序语言,来自英语的fortran。
燕梳:(港)保险,来自英语的insure。
优痞:(台)雅皮士,城市职业青年,来自英语的
yuppie。
仄纸:(港)支票,“仄”是英语cheque的译音。
浜格:(港)西式煎薄饼饼,来自英语的pancake。
宝特瓶:(台)塑料饮料瓶,来自英语的potable的译音。
“纸公司”,台湾指的是“只办理了注册而无实
际业务的公司“,英语paper company的直译。
“草根阶层”,流行于港台,指的是“平民阶层
“,英语grassroots的直译。
“超博士”,流行于台湾,相当于大陆的“博士
后“,英语post-doctor的对译。
除了来自英语外,部分港台新词语来自日
语,如,
1.粉笔在台湾又称为“白墨”,来自日语はくほ
く。
2.台湾的“埠头”,意为“码头”,来自日语的
ふとぅ。
3.台湾的“超勤”,意为“加班”,来自日语的
ちょぅきんほ。
Words from Latin
Shrine
Monk
Apostle
priest bishop
pope
psalm
litany shrift
nun
Sabbath
Words From the East
Kamikaze (神风)
Pepper
Ju-jitsu (柔道)
Phoenix
Orange
Ginger ( Sanskrit )
William the Conqueror, was
king of England from 1066
to 1087
Born in Falaise, France,
William was the
illegitimate son of
Robert I, duke of
Normandy, and Arletta,
a tanner’s daughter,
and is therefore
sometimes called
William the Bastard
Battle of Hastings, October 14, 1066,
between a national army led by Harold II,
Saxon king of England, and an invasion
force led by William, Duke of Normandy,
afterward
Kingly-royal-regal-sovereign
Rise-mount-ascend
Ask-question-interrogate
East-oriental
West-occidental
Danish linguist Otto Jespersen, A Modern
English Grammar (pub. in four parts, 190931), and The Philosophy of Grammar (1924).
Effect, affect, influence
 The prisoner _____ their escape
 The new system of accounting will _____ a
reduction in costs.
 The climate has _____ his health.
 I am afraid that this adventure has rather
_____ your admiration of her charisma.
 The judge has been _____ in his decision.
Reference
 The prisoner effected their escape
 The new system of accounting will effect a
reduction in costs.
 The climate has affected his health.
 I am afraid that this adventure has rather
affected your admiration of her five eyes.
 The judge has been influenced in his
decision.
African American
Beta carotene
Cyberpunk
Designated driver
Dweeb
Hip-hop
Liposuction
Wuss