Journal and
Objectives
English II-H
Mrs. Fenlon
After viewing “Shift Happens”
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Reflect and respond to the following
questions on paper:
What modes of technology are you
comfortable with?
Write about a time when you used
technology for any type of project and
enjoyed it.
Is there any type of technology that you are
not comfortable with or do not enjoy using?
Journal: September 10, 2010
“Laziness may appear attractive, but work
gives satisfaction.”—Anne Frank
 What does the quotation mean?
 Relate it to yourself, society, history, pop
culture, etc.
Bildungsroman
A
novel about the moral/psychological
growth of the main character
Colloquial
 Informal
Speech—slightly more formal
than slang
Foil
A
contrast to another character
Diction
A
writer’s or speaker’s choice of words,
which is appropriate to a specific
audience.
A
statement or situation that seems to be
a contradiction but reveals a truth
Nonsequitir
 when
one statement does not logically
connect to the one it follows
Satire
A
type of writing that ridicules something
in order to reveal a weakness
Epigram
A
witty, thoughtful statement
Parody
A
literary work in which the style of an
author or work is closely imitated for
comic effect or in ridicule
Idiom
 An
expression that is often peculiar to a
language that means something different
from the literal meaning of a word
Euphemism
 Substitution
of a mild or less negative word
or phrase for a harsh or blunt one
Dialect
A
way of speaking that is characteristic of
a particular group of people
Epithet
 Adjective
or descriptive phrase that is
regularly used to characterize a person,
place, or thing
Adage
A
saying or proverb that embodies a
certain amount of wisdom
Allegory
A
narrative that serves as an extended
metaphor
Denotation
 The
literal meaning of a word
Aphorism
 Concise
statement of a principle, truth, or
sentiment
Tone
 The
attitude a writer takes toward the
audience, a subject, or a character.
Antihero
A
protagonist who is not on the side of
“good”
Connotation
 All
the meanings, associations, or
emotions that a word suggests
Archetype
 Original
pattern or model; a perfect
example
Allusion
 Reference
to a person, place, or event
from literature, history, religion, mythology,
politics, sports, science, or pop culture
Epiphany
 When
a character suddenly experiences
a deep realization about himself or
herself; a truth which is grasped in an
ordinary moment
Hyperbole
A
figure of speech that uses exaggeration
to express strong emotion or to create a
comic effect; also called overstatement.
Flat Character, Static
Character, Dynamic
Character
A
character who has only one or two
traits; no depth
 A character who does not change much
during the story
 A character who has many different
character traits, which sometimes
contradict each other
Ellipsis
 Omission
of words that is implied in a
sentence—often by the use of three
periods (…)
Catharsis
A
cleansing of the spirit when feelings of
pity and sorrow arise from tragedy
Apostrophe
 Addressing
of an absent person or
inanimate object
Begging the Question
 Also
called Circular Reasoning; occurs
when the believability of the evidence
depends on the believability of the claim.
Climax
A
moment of great intensity or suspense in
the plot; usually marks the moment when
the conflict is decided one way or
another
Simile
A
figure of speech that makes a
comparison between two unlike things,
using a word such as like, as, than, or
resembles
Pun
 Play
on the multiple meanings of a word
or on two words that sound alike but have
different meanings.
Syntax
A
word that simply refers to sentences
and sentence structure
Direct/Indirect
Characterization
 Author
reveals a character by stating
directly what his/her personality is like
 Author reveals a character through
his/her appearance, speech, inner
thoughts and feelings, actions, or through
the speech and/or thoughts of other
characters.
Logical, Ethical, and Emotional
Appeals
 Attempting
to win an argument by
appealing to one’s sense of intellect
 Attempting to win an argument by
appealing to one’s sense of fairness
 Attempting to win an argument by
playing on the emotions of people
3rd limited point of view, 3rd
omniscient, 1st person
 The
narrator zooms in on the thoughts and
feelings of just one character
 The person telling the story knows
everything about the characters
 The narrator is usually a character telling
the story using the pronoun “I”.
Red Herring
 When
a writer raises an irrelevant issue to
draw attention away from the real issue
Metaphor
A
figure of speech that makes a
comparison between two unlike things
without using the words like, as, than, or
resembles.
Foreshadowing
 Clues
to events occurring later in the plot
Oxymoron
A
combination of contradictory terms
Local Color
A
detailed setting forth of the
characteristics of a particular locality,
enabling the reader to "see" the setting
Picaresque Novel
 of
or relating to a genre of usually satiric
prose fiction originating in Spain and
depicting in realistic, often humorous
detail the adventures of a roguish hero of
low social degree living by his or her wits in
a corrupt society
Situational Irony, Verbal Irony,
Dramatic Irony
A
contradiction between what we expect
to happen and what really does take
place
 A writer or a speaker says one thing but
means something entirely different
 The reader or audience knows something
that the character in a play or story does
not know
September 13, 2010
 “When
luck enters, give him a seat.”Jewish Proverb
 Interpret the quotation—agree or
disagree?
 Relate to self, society, history, etc.
 Essential
Question: How does a writer’s
use of wit and satire help reveal social
injustices existing in our world?
“Mark Twain: Our Original
Superstar” Discussion
Questions
 What
is the difference between satire and
irony?
 How would you describe the article’s
overall tone? What is the overall/main
point of the article?
Journal: September 14, 2010
 “An
early morning walk is a blessing for
the whole day.”—Henry David Thoreau
 Interpret the quotation: what does it
mean? Do you agree or disagree?
 Relate to yourself, society, history, etc.
Essential Question:
How does a writer’s use of wit and
satire help reveal social injustices existing in
our world?
Summary Pointers
 The
article says that, “…”
 Punctuate titles correctly—short stories are
enclosed in quotations, novels are
italicized/underlined.
 Quote, cite, explain
 ALWAYS focus your summary on analyzing
the main idea—don’t stray from the main
idea!
 Replace dead words and weak verbs
 Work hard at building up to your final
thought
Sample Opening
 In
Roy Blount Jr.’s article, “Mark Twain:
Our Original Superstar,” he asserts that
Mark Twain was the first who addressed
social and political issues eloquently and
humorously, thus paving the way for
current political satirists such as “Jon
Stewart, Stephen Colbert, Bill Maher, and
Keith Olberman.”
Sample Closing
 Each
year, an award is given in honor of
Twain, the Kennedy Center’s Mark Twain
Prize for American Humor. Roy Blount, Jr.
feels that Mark Twain’s essays are relevant
even today; they still spark controversy,
debate, and invite laughter.
Sample Opening Statement
 In
the article, “Mark Twain: Our Original
Superstar,” Roy Blount Jr. describes Mark
Twain as not only existing at the root of
American literature, but also serves as the
conscience of America during his time.
Sample concluding thoughts
 Mark
Twain is certainly a name America
knows. He made America laugh in a time
where it was needed most. He gave
insight into societal issues and politics in a
way no author had before. He is still
considered the greatest author in
American literature and is still looked up to
as our “original superstar.”
Unfamiliar Words—Newsweek
Article
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Elusive
Blithely
Subversive
Nihilism
Clandestine
Compulsion
Polemic
Droll
Valedictory
Punditry
Unfamiliar Words—Time Article
 Adroitly
 Benighted
 Accolade
 Metastasizing
 Posthumous
 Fulminating
September 15, 2010
“Love is a fruit in season at all times, and within
the reach of every hand.”—Mother Teresa
 Interpret quotation, and agree or disagree.
 Relate to yourself, society, pop culture, history,
etc.
 Essential Question: How does a writer’s use of
wit and satire help reveal social injustices in
our world?
Satire
 What
is the writer’s/cartoonist’s point of
view on society?
 What is the writer’s/cartoonist’s target
audience?
In the novel, Twain includes…
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Satire on man to man cruelty
Satire on religious hypocrisy
Satire on the concept of slavery
With your group, read your assigned section
and figure out which of the three targets
(listed above) Twain is satirizing. Be prepared
to discuss Twain’s point of view on the issue as
revealed through your assigned passage.
Homework: Define
Vocabulary, prepare for quiz
Friday, and…
 Create
a visual demonstrating one of
satirical episodes of Huck Finn. Bring in
your creation on Friday.
 Read “Advice to Youth” by Mark Twain for
tomorrow and be prepared to discuss the
main idea, as well as key points.
(Highlight!)
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like, as, than, or resembles