The Dawn
of Mass
8.4 Notes
American Leisure
Amusement Parks
► Chicago,
New York City set asie space for
outdoor enjoyment
► Small playgrounds, playing fields
► Amusement parks constructed on outskirts
► Built by trolley-car co. looking for more
► Picnic grounds, rides
► Ferris wheel, roller
► Coney Island - 1884
Bicycling and
► Male
only sport at first
– challenging
► 1885 – commercial
“safety bicycle”
► Victor model for
► More comfortable
attire for women when
Marshall W. "Major" Taylor
A hundred years ago,
when bicycle races drew
crowds that filled Madison
Square Garden, the
biggest draw of all was
Major Taylor. In 1898 fans
would flock to see "the
Worcester Whirlwind"
compete. Controversy
surround "the Colored
Cyclone," whose star was
rising in muscular defiance
of the Jim Crow
segregation permeating
the sport.
► Tennis
originated in Wales
– 1873
► Popular among socialites
 Florence Harriman
 People thought nets were
to catch birds
► 1900
– Chocolate Hershey
► Coca-Cola – 1886
pharmacist used
as a cure for headaches
►Coca leaves and African
cola nuts
Spectator Sports
► Informal
activities become
► Boxing and baseball
► Profitable businesses
► Baseball
 1845 – amateur player Alexander Cartwright
organized New York City ball club
 50 clubs in 5 years
 1869 – Cincinnati Red Stockings
toured U.S.
 Formed NL and AL
 Published game schedule,
official rules, standard-sized diamond
► First
World Series – 1903
 Boston Pilgrims (4) beat
Pittsburg Pirates (3)
► African Americans excluded
 Formed own leagues
 Negro National League
and Negro American
“the very symbol…and
visible expression of the
drive and push and rush
and struggle of the raging,
tearing, booming, 19th
Century” – Mark Twain
► Promotion
of education
increased literacy rate
► Sensational headlines to attract
► Joseph Pulitzer purchased New
York World
 Introduced large Sunday edition
 Comics, sports coverage, women’s
 “sin, sex and sensation”
► William
Randolph Hearst owned
San Francisco Examiner
 New York Morning Journal –
personal scandal, cruelty, etc.
Fine Arts
► 1900
– Art gallery in
every major city
► “realism” portrayed life
as it was
► Aschan School of
American Art
 Urban life and labor with
no frills
► Abstract
art developing in
► Libraries often nearby
 “poor man’s university”
Popular Fiction
► Crime
tales, western adventures, light fiction
► “Dime Novels”
 Glorified adventure tales with a hero
 Edward Wheeler’s Deadwood Dick
► Mark
Twain (Samuel Clemens)
 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
 Not so serious literatures

The Dawn of Mass Culture