Subjunctive Mood Verbs
2013
What Is the Subjunctive Mood?
• You’ve already learned 2 moods of Latin verbs:
– 1. the indicative mood, used for statements of
fact and asking questions
– 2. the imperative mood, used for commands
Subjunctive Mood
• The subjunctive mood gives more of the
speaker’s or writer’s opinion or attitude
toward the truth of a statement.
• It can be used independently, as a main verb.
• It’s often used in dependent clauses, too.
Subjunctive Tenses
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•
•
•
We’ve learned 6 tenses of Latin verbs.
The subjunctive only has 4 tenses!
It also has active/passive voice.
Tenses:
There is no such
– Present
– Imperfect
– Perfect
– Pluperfect
thing as the
future or future
perfect
subjunctive.
Present Tense Subjunctive
• The present tense subjunctive uses the same
personal endings as regular verbs (swap out
“m” for “o” in 1st person singular):
• ACTIVE VOICE:
PASSIVE VOICE:
–M
–S
–T
-MUS
-TIS
-NT
-R
-MUR
-RIS -MINI
-TUR -NTUR
Present Tense Subjunctive
• Since present tense subjunctive uses the same
personal endings, something else has to
change to make it different from regular
present tense.
• It’s all in the VOWELS!
Pick Your Mnemonic Device:
•
•
•
•
•
We Beat A Liar
She Wears A Tiara
The Beans At Brian’s
Let’s Eat Caviar!
She Reads A Diary
-E-EA-A-IA-
1st Conjugation: “A” changes to “E”
amo, amare
• amo
amamus
• amas SUBJUNCTIVE!
amatis
• amat
amant
amem
ames
amet
amemus
ametis
ament
2nd Conjugation: “E” changes to “EA”
moneo, monere
• moneo monemus
• mones
monetis
SUBJUNCTIVE!
• monet monent
moneam moneamus
moneas moneatis
moneat moneant
3rd Conjugation: “E” changes to “A”
rego, regere
•
•
•
rego
regimus
SUBJUNCTIVE!
regis
regitis
regit
regunt
regam
regas
regat
regamus
regatis
regant
4th Conjugation: “I” changes to “IA”
munio, munire
• munio munimus
• munis
munitis
SUBJUNCTIVE!
• munit muniunt
muniam
munias
muniat
muniamus
muniatis
muniant
So…what does it do?
• A common independent use of the present
subjunctive is for something called the volitive
subjunctive. (remember “volo” for
“wish/want”?)
• It expresses the speakers wish, or desire, that
something be done.
Volitive Subjunctive
• Let them prepare dinner. OR They should
prepare dinner.
Cenam parent. (paro, parare: prepare)
• Let’s/let us explore the forest.
Silvam exploremus. (exploro, explorare)
• Ne silvam exploremus.
Let’s not explore the forest.
Volitive Subjunctive
• The volitive subjunctive is translated by “let”
or sometimes “should.”
• The negative is “ne” (not “non”).
• It works as a main verb.
• Other names for volitive: hortatory (for 1st
person plural “let’s…”), jussive (from “iubeo:
to order”)
Practice!
• Write the present tense subjunctive charts for
the following verbs:
– porto, portare
– doceo, docere
– pono, ponere
– audio, audire