The subjunctive/ il congiuntivo
Pg 324
Comparativo d'uguaglianza
Comparisons of equality using adjectives and adverbs are expressed in Italian with così ... come or tanto ... quanto.
In practice, così and tanto are often omitted.
Il salotto è (così) grande come
lo studio.
La cucina è (tanto) moderna
quanto il bagno.
Paolo guida (così) lentamente
come suo fratello.
The living room is as big as the
office.
The kitchen is as modern as the
bathroom.
Paolo drives as slowly as his
brother.
Note that when the second part of a comparison contains a pronoun, a
disjunctive form is used.
Il fratello di Paolo guida (tanto) lentamente quanto te.
Comparisons of equality of nouns and verbs are expressed with the
pattern
tanto ... quanto. When tanto modifies a noun, it agrees with the noun.
Mio fratello mangia quanto un My brother eats as much as an
elefante. elephant.
Ha tanta fame quanto un lupo. He is as hungry as a wolf.
Mangia tante verdure quanto te. He eats as many vegetables as you do.
When the quantity of two nouns is being compared, tanto and quanto
agree with the nouns.
Nel frigo ci sono tante arance There are as many oranges as
quante mele, e c’è tanto apples in the refrigerator, and
tè freddo quanta limonata. there is as much iced tea as lemonade.
Comparativo di maggioranza e di minoranza
Comparisons of inequality between two different subjects are formed with the patterns
più ... di
and meno ... di. Such comparisons may pertain to adjectives, adverbs, nouns, or
pronouns. When
the second part of the comparison is a pronoun, the disjunctive form is used.
La sala da pranzo è più grande The dining room is larger than
del salotto. the living room.
La cantina è meno fresca del The cellar is less cool than the
giardino. garden.
Quest’appartamento ha più This apartment has more
elettrodomestici dell’altro. appliances than the other.
Questa casa ha meno scale This house has fewer stairs than
della mia. mine.
2. Più di and meno di are used with cardinal numbers in comparisons.
Abbiamo visto più di venti We looked at more than twenty
appartamenti. apartments.
L’affitto di quest’appartamento è The rent for this apartment is
meno di €500 al mese. less than €500 a month.
3. Che is used instead of di when comparing two adjectives or two nouns pertaining to
the same subject.
Ho più amiche che amici. I have more female friends than male
friends.
Studio più in biblioteca che I study more at the library than at home.
a casa.
Congiuntivo presente: Verbi che esprimono desiderio, volontà e speranza
Verbs have both tense (tempo), which tells you when the action takes place relative to the
present, and mood (modo), which tells you how the speaker perceives the statement. Most of the
tenses you have learned so far are in the indicative mood, which is used for stating facts and
certainties. Another mood in Italian is the subjunctive (il congiuntivo), which also has several
tenses. English has a subjunctive mood as well, but it is used infrequently.
We would prefer that you be prompt.
I wish you were here.
The subjunctive is nearly always used in a subordinate clause introduced by che. Compare the verb forms in the pairs of
sentences below.
The verb in the first sentence is in the indicative mood: it states a fact. The verb in the che clause of the
second sentence is in the subjunctive mood.
The subjunctive is nearly always used in a subordinate clause introduced by che. Compare the verb forms in the
pairs of sentences below. The verb in the first sentence is in the indicative mood: it states a fact. The verb in the
che clause of the second sentence is in the subjunctive mood.
Indicativo
Congiuntivo
La nostra squadra vince.
Speriamo che la nostra squadra vinca.
Preferiamo che compriate una casa qui
vicino.
Voglio che lei telefoni all’agenzia
di viaggi.
Comprate una casa qui vicino.
Lei telefona all’agenzia di viaggi.
Certain conditions expressed in the main clause of a sentence require the subjunctive in
the
subordinate clause.
If the main clause expresses a desire, a demand, or a hope, the subordinate clause will be in
the subjunctive.
Some verbs of desire or hope that require the subjunctive in a dependent clause are:
La professoressa suggerisce che
listen
voi ascoltiate attentamente in classe.
Vuole che tutti gli studenti capiscano
la lezione.
The professor suggests that you
carefully in class.
She wants all her students to
understand the lesson.
The subjunctive is used only when the main clause and the subordinate clause have two different subjects.
An infinitive is used if there is no change of subject.
Patrizia spera di divertirsi questo
semestre.
I genitori sperano che Patrizia prenda
buoni voti questo semestre.
Non voglio che tu spenda molto.
Non voglio spendere molto.
Patrizia hopes to have fun this
semester.
Patrizia’s parents hope that she
gets good grades this semester.
I don’t want you to spend a lot.
I don’t want to spend a lot.
Congiuntivo presente: verbi regolari
Verbs ending in -care and -gare add h to all forms of the present subjunctive to
retain
the hard sound of the c or g.
Speriamo che giochino bene.
Preferiamo che paghiate voi.
Let’s hope they play well.
We prefer that you pay.