WJ III Training
Use and Interpretation
WJ III Achievement Battery
WJ III TESTS OF
ACHIEVEMENT
READING TESTS &
CLUSTERS
ACH 1 Letter-Word Identification
• Requires identifying and reading isolated letters and
words - sight recognition and identification task
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Know exact pronunciation of words
• Responses must be pronounced as a complete word to
receive credit
Clusters
Broad Ability
Broad Reading
Basic Reading Skills
Academic Skills
Total Achievement
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Narrow Ability
Reading Decoding
ACH 13 Word Attack
• Requires decoding of pseudowords
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Know pronunciation prior to administering test
• Responses must be pronounced as a complete word to
receive credit
Broad Ability
Clusters
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Basic Reading Skills
Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge
Narrow Abilities
Reading Decoding
Phonetic Coding:
Analysis & synthesis
ACH 21 Sound Awareness
• Requires manipulating phonemes to produce oral
responses
• 4 subtests: 21A Rhyming, 21B Deletion,
21C Substitution, 21D Reversal
• Administer samples to all subjects and then Item 1 on
each subtest
• Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest:
A & B=4 highest incorrect, C & D=3 highest incorrect
Cluster
Phonemic Awareness 3
(requires 2 Cognitive tests)
Broad Ability
Auditory Processing (Ga)
Narrow Ability
Phonetic Coding: Analysis & Synthesis
ACH 2 Reading Fluency
• Requires reading and comprehending simple
sentences rapidly (uses SRB)
• Start with Item 1/End with 3-minute time limit
• Skipped items are NOT scored as a “0” - they are
ignored for the purpose of scoring
• If fewer than 3 correct on Practice Exercises C-F,
discontinue testing and score test a “0”
Clusters
Broad Ability
Broad Reading
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Academic Fluency
Narrow Ability
Total Achievement
Reading Speed
ACH 9 Passage Comprehension
• Requires reading a short passage and supplying a key
missing word
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Accept responses that differ in tense or number
• Score responses that are different parts of speech as “0”
Clusters
Broad Ability
Broad Reading
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Reading Comprehension
Narrow Abilities
Academic Applications
Total Achievement
Reading Comprehension
Lexical Knowledge
ACH 17 Reading Vocabulary
• Requires reading words and providing synonyms,
antonyms, and completing analogies
• 3 subtests: 17A Synonyms, 17B Antonyms, 17C Analogies
• Administer samples for each subtest to all subjects
• Use Suggested Starting Points for each subtest
• Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest: 4 lowest
correct/4 highest incorrect
Broad Ability
Cluster
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Reading Comprehension
Narrow Abilities
Language Development /
Comprehension
WJ III TESTS OF
ACHIEVEMENT
WRITTEN LANGUAGE
TESTS
G
ACH 8 Writing Fluency
• Requires formulating and writing simple sentences
rapidly (uses SRB)
• Begin with Item 1/End with 7-minute time limit
• Discontinue if subject has “0” on Samples B-D or 3 or
fewer correct in first 2 minutes
• Any stimulus words may be read upon request
• 3 stimulus words may not be changed in any way
Clusters
Broad Written Language
Written Expression
Academic Fluency
Total Achievement
Broad Ability
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Narrow Ability
Writing Speed
Writing Fluency - Examiner Tips
• Score as incorrect any items skipped.
• Do not penalize for spelling, punctuation, or
capitalization errors.
• Do not penalize for poor handwriting unless illegible.
• Response must be a reasonable sentence to receive
credit.
• If the sentence is awkward but the meaning is clear,
score as 1.
• Accept sentences with the understood subject you.
• Accept abbreviations or symbols
• If a word critical to the meaning is omitted, score as 0.
• Omission of less meaningful word is not penalized.
ACH 11 Writing Samples
• Requires writing sentences in response to a series of
demands that increase in difficulty (uses SRB)
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Administer Block of Items
• Administer additional block of items if score falls in or
near shaded area of scoring table
Clusters
Broad Written Language
Written Expression
Academic Applications
Total Achievement
Broad Ability
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Narrow Ability
Writing Ability
Writing Samples
Scoring Responses
Block of Items
2
• 1 to 6
1.5
• 1 to 12
• 7 to 18
• 13 to 24
• 19 to 30
1
.5
0
superior response
not clearly a 2, but
better than a 1 point
standard response
not clearly a 1, but
better than a 0
inadequate or illegible
Examiner Tips
• Use Scoring Guide in Appendix B of Examiner Manual.
• Items may be scored 2, 1.5, 1, .5, or 0 even if no example is
shown in Scoring Guide.
• Score is based on one block even if additional blocks were
administered.
Writing Samples - Examiner Tips
• Severe grammatical or usage errors - reduce
score by 1 point (omission of critical words, extremely
awkward sentences)
• Multiple Sentences - Select and score the one
sentence that most closely meets tasks demands.
• Inappropriate Content - Responses that have little
to do with the requested task are scored as 0.
• Misinterpretation of Picture - Ignore and score
response according to item criteria.
• Two Raters - Two independent raters score items
and resolve any score differences of more than 1 point.
Average the two scores to obtain final number correct.
• Round scores - ending in .5 to nearest even number
(15.5 = 16, 16.5=16)
Writing Evaluation
• Handwriting Legibility Scale (Appendix C)
• Uses a match to sample approach
• Scale of 0-100, 10 point increments
• Handwriting Elements Checklist (Test Record)
• 6 elements: slant, spacing, size, horizontal alignment,
letter formation, line quality
• Writing Evaluation Scale (Appendix D)
• Facilitates evaluation of longer, more complex passages
• Uses an analytic scoring method, providing more
specific information about strengths & weaknesses
L
ACH 7 Spelling
• Requires writing letters and words presented orally
(uses SRB)
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Use Suggested Starting Points based on present level
of spelling skill
• Modified from Dictation in WJ-R - no punctuation,
capitalization, or usage items
Clusters
Broad Written Language
Basic Writing Skills
Academic Skills
Total Achievement
Broad Ability
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Narrow Ability
Spelling
Spelling
• Items 1-4
Prewriting with demonstration
• Items 5-6
Tracing with demonstration
• Item 7
Copying a letter
• Items 9-13
Printing letters
• Items 14-59
Spelling words
Examiner Tips
• Do not penalize poor handwriting or reversed letters as long as
the letter does not become a new letter. (b = d)
• Accept uppercase or lowercase responses unless case is
specified.
• Know the exact pronunciation of the word for each item.
• Request responses be printed but accept cursive.
ACH 20 Spelling of Sounds
• Requires spelling pseudowords that conform to English
spelling rules - regular and irregular patterns (use SRB)
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Administer Samples A-D and Items 1-5 orally
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 4 lowest correct/4 highest incorrect
• Answers listed are the only acceptable responses
Broad Ability
Cluster
Phoneme/Grapheme
Knowledge
Auditory Processing (Ga)
Narrow Abilities
Spelling
Phonetic Coding: Analysis
Spelling of Sounds - Samples
A. I am going to ask you to write some letters. I will tell you
the sound that the letter makes and then you write the
letter. For example, I may say: Write the letter than
makes the /s/ sound as in sand. Since the letter “s” makes
the /s/ sound, you would write an “s.” Now you write the
letter “s” here.
C. I am going to ask you to spell some words that are not real
words--they are nonsense words. Nonsense words may
sound like “bip,” “ost,” or “mib.” Try to spell this nonsense
word the way you think it would be spelled if it were a real
word. Listen carefully. I will say the nonsense word twice
and then you write it. “Ut, ut.”
Error or No Response
• Follow the error correction procedure in Test Book
for all sample items.
Spelling of Sounds - Scoring
• Items 1-5:
score 1 if correct letter is written
• Items 13-28:
score 1 if spelling matches
responses listed in Test Book
• Items 6-12:
multi-point items (1 for each correctly
written and sequenced sound or word part)
Item
Points
6. Gat
(3) (g-a-t)
12. Jong
(3) (j-o-ng)
Response
“gate”
“gt”
“gonk”
“ong”
Score
2
2
1
2
Examiner Tips
• Spelling must be a common English spelling pattern to receive
credit e.g., litch vs. lich.
• Deduct points for sounds omitted, sounds that have been altered
by extra letters, or sounds out of sequence.
G
ACH 16 Editing
• Requires orally identifying and correcting errors in
written passages
• Administer Samples A-D to all subjects
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Discontinue testing if subject has 0 on Samples A-D, or
on Items 1-4
Broad Ability
Cluster
Reading-Writing (Grw)
Basic Writing Skills
Narrow Abilities
Language Development
English Usage
ACH 5 Calculation
• Requires calculation of problems ranging from simple
addition facts to calculus (uses SRB)
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Skipped items are scored as a “0”
• Do not point out signs
• Accept reversals but not transposed numbers
Clusters
Broad Mathematics
Math Calculation Skills
Academic Skills
Total Achievement
Broad Ability
Mathematics (Gq)
Narrow Ability
Mathematics Achievement
ACH 6 Math Fluency
• Requires rapid calculation of single-digit addition,
subtraction, and multiplication facts (uses SRB)
• Begin with Item 1/End with 3-minute time limit
• Skipped items are scored as a “0”
• Point out signs only once in directions as indicated
• Discontinue if 3 or less correct after 1 minute
Clusters
Broad Mathematics
Math Calculation Skills
Academic Fluency
Total Achievement
Broad Ability
Mathematics (Gq)
Narrow Abilities
Mathematics Achievement
Numerical Facility
ACH 10 Applied Problems
• Requires comprehending the nature of a problem,
identifying relevant information, performing
calculations, and stating solution
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• No reading is required
Clusters
Broad Mathematics
Broad Ability
Mathematics (Gq)
Math Reasoning
Narrow Abilities
Academic Applications
Quantitative Reasoning
Total Achievement
Math Achievement
Knowledge of Mathematics
ACH 18 Quantitative Concepts
• Requires applying mathematical concepts and
analyzing numerical relationships (use SRB)
• 2 subtests: 18A Concepts, 18B Number Series
• Use Suggested Starting Points for each subtest
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 18A 4 / 4
18B 3 / 3
• Each item in 18B has a 1-minute time limit
Broad Ability
Cluster
Mathematics (Gq)
Math Reasoning
Narrow Abilities
Knowledge of Mathematics
Quantitative Reasoning
WJ III TESTS OF
ACHIEVEMENT
ORAL LANGUAGE &
ACADEMIC KNOWLEDGE
TESTS
ACH 3 Story Recall
• Requires listening to stories and recalling elements
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Follow Continuation Instructions
• Do not repeat or replay any stories
Clusters
Oral Language-STD
Oral Language-EXT
Oral Expression
Broad Ability
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Narrow Abilities
Language Development
Listening Ability
Story Recall - Examiner Tips
• Pause the audio recording after each story so the
subject can respond.
• In the Test Record, place a check mark over each
element recalled.
(elements are separated by slash marks /)
• Elements that are bold must be recalled exactly.
Other elements can be synonyms or paraphrased.
• If necessary, stories can be presented orally.
• If Test 12 Story Recall-Delayed will be
administered, do not tell subject that stories
may need to be recalled later.
Story Recall - Story 1
Julie / likes to catch butterflies./ Then she lets them go./
Sample Responses
3 Points Possible
She catches butterflies.
Julie catches butterflies.
Julie likes catching butterflies. She lets them go.
(1)
(2)
(3)
Continuation Rules
• If subject has 3 or fewer points on Stories 1 and 2,
testing may be discontinued.
• If subject has 4 or more points on Stories 1 and 2,
administer Stories 3 and 4 unless already administered.
ACH 4 Understanding Directions
• Requires listening to instructions and then pointing to
objects in pictures
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Follow Continuation Instructions
• Let subject review picture for 10 seconds prior to
administering items
Broad Ability
Clusters
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Oral Language-STD
Narrow Ability
Oral Language-EXT
Listening Ability
Listening Comprehension
Language Development
Understanding Directions - Examiner Tips
• Pause or stop audio recording after last item of
each picture.
• Do not repeat or replay any item.
If an obvious noise (e.g., bell ringing) interferes, finish the
picture, then re-administer specific item.
• All steps must be completed to receive credit.
(any order unless otherwise specified)
• Record Number of Points for each picture in space
provided in Test Record.
• When using the software program, an entry must
be made for each picture: Number of Points or “X”
if not administered.
ACH 12 Story Recall - Delayed
• Requires recalling elements of stories presented
30 minutes to 8 days earlier
• Only administer stories previously given in Test 3
• Do not include prompts read by examiner in raw score
• Scoring is the same as Test 3 Story Recall. In Test
Record, place check mark over each part of story
recalled accurately.
Broad Ability
Cluster
Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)
Delayed Recall
(requires Cognitive Test)
Narrow Ability
Meaningful Memory
Story Recall-Delayed
The other day (yesterday, earlier today), you heard some
short stories. I am going to read a few words from a
story, and then you tell me what you remember about
the rest of the story.
Recall.
Present only stories you administered to subject in Test 3 Story
1. Julie likes to catch….
2. Mary has a dog….
5. Rick got some glow-in-the-dark…
6. The dinosaur at the museum...
Examiner Tips
• Record date and time of administration on Test Record.
G
ACH 14 Picture Vocabulary
• Requires naming pictures (familiar to less familiar)
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
• Point to picture or part of picture as directed
• Test by complete pages
Broad Ability
Clusters
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Oral Language-Extended
Oral Expression
Narrow Abilities
Language Development
Lexical Knowledge
ACH 15 Oral Comprehension
• Requires listening to a short passage and providing the
missing final word
• Administer Samples A & B to all subjects
• Use Suggested Starting Points
• Basal/Ceiling Rules: 6 lowest correct/6 highest incorrect
Clusters
Oral Language-Extended
Listening Comprehension
Broad Ability
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Narrow Ability
Listening Ability
ACH 19 Academic Knowledge
• Requires providing an oral response to items presented
orally (no reading or writing)
• 3 subtests: 19A Science, 19B Social Studies, 19C Humanities
• Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest: 3 / 3
• Use Suggested Starting Points for each subtest
• All 3 subtests must be administered to obtain score
Broad Ability
Cluster
Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)
Knowledge
Narrow Abilities
(requires 1 Cognitive test)
General Information
(Science, Cultural, Geography)
Reading Skills
Cognitive and Academic Interactions
Word Decoding
Phonemic Awareness
Working Memory
Lexical Speed and
Access (RAN)
Rapid Single Word Reading
Vocabulary Knowledge,
Working Memory,
Language Development,
Inductive Reasoning
Fluency for
Reading
Connected Text
Comprehension
Reading Development &
Implications for Assessment
Skill
Word Decoding
Test
Decoding of Pseudowords
(e.g. WJ III Word Attack, ITPA-3)
Rapid Single Word Reading
Comprehension
TOWRE
Tests of text and
vocabulary
comprehension.