Comparative Industrial Relations and Global Movements
比较工业关系和全球运动
Elaine Bernard, PhD
Labor and Worklife Program & The Trade Union Program,
Harvard Law School©
伊莲·伯纳德博士 简介
Elaine Bernard is Executive Director of the Labor and Worklife Program (LWP) at Harvard Law School and the Harvard Trade
Union Program (HTUP). She has a BA from the University of Alberta, a MA from the University of British Columbia and a Ph.D. from
Simon Fraser University. Bernard is a popular public speaker. A life long union member and activist, Bernard brings a refreshing
balance of humor and passion for worker rights to her talks and teaching. She has conducted courses on a wide variety of topics for
unions, community groups, universities and government departments. Her current research and teaching interests are in the areas
of international comparative labor movements, union leadership and governance, and the role of unions in promoting civil society,
democracy and economic justice.
伊莲·伯纳德博士同时担任哈佛大学法学院劳动和工作生活项目(LWP)和哈佛工会
计划(HTUP)的执行主管。她先后从阿尔伯塔大学(University of Alberta)取得学
士学位,英属哥伦比亚大学(University of British Columbia)取得硕士学位,西
蒙·弗雷泽大学取得博士学位。伯纳德博士的公开演讲广受欢迎。作为一名致力终
生的工会成员和社会活动家,她在工人权利的演讲和教学中兼具幽默和激情,带
来一股新风。她主讲的课程主题涵盖了工会、社群、大学和政府部门。她目前的
研究与教学兴趣集中在国际劳动关系模式的比较、工会领导力与治理,以及工会
在推进公民社会、民主和经济公正中的作用。
Why study comparative labor relations?
为什么要学习比较劳动关系
•
Global economy and global capital dominate.
国际经济形势与国际资本的主导作用
•
Labor unions and workers face many challenges in today’s economy.
在当今经济生活中,工会与工人需要面对许多挑战
•
Labor movements and unions need a global perspective.
劳工运动和工会需要全球视野
•
Labor exchanges and solidarity can improve conditions for workers everywhere
劳工领域的跨地域交流能够惠及各地的劳动者
International (OECD) Trend Line
国际(OECD)趋势
•
Widespread decline in union density in most countries (though not in Collective Bargaining coverage)
在大多数国家中工会密度普遍下降 (尽管集体协商覆盖
率并没有相对下降)
•
Most severe decline in union representation primarily in the private sector
大多数服务的下降主要集中在私营领域的工会代表
•
Growing gap between union density in public sector vs. private sector
在公共领域和私营领域之间的工会密度的差距越来越大
Reasons for Decline…
下降的原因
•
Globalization – intensification of international economic & political integration (free trade race to the
bottom)
全球化 – 加强国际经济和政治一体化(自由贸易战打到底线)
•
Changes in organization of production and employment (contracting out, offshoring, lean production,
JiT inventory systems…)
改变生产和就业的组织(外包、离岸外包,精益生产, 即时库存系统…)
•
Decline of job-based/workplace focus of employment
减少工作/工作场所集中的就业
•
Decline in large, concentrated workplaces
减少大规模集中的工作场所
•
Transformation of employment relationship (decline in full time, regular, permanent employment –
growth in part time, contingent, limited term, precarious employment)
雇佣关系的转变(减少全职,常规,永久性就业,增长为兼职,
临时,有限和不稳定的就业)
•
Employer (including government) hostility/opposition to unions
雇主(包括政府)敌意/反对工会
The Five Fingers of Globalization
全球化的五个方面
•
Trade in goods/services
货物/服务贸易
•
Immigration/migration & movement of people
移民/迁徙运动
•
Capital flows/finance
资本流动/金融
•
Technology
技术
•
Governance
政府及管理
Varieties of Economies & Industrial Relations Regimes
多种经济体和劳资关系制度
(adapted from Varieties of Capitalism, Hall & Soskice (2001)
Liberal Market Economies 自由市场经济体
Coordinated Market Economies 协调市场经济体
Well-developed capital markets 发达的资本市场
‘patient’ forms of capital 长期资本投资
‘outsider’ forms of corporate governance
“局外人”形式的企业管理
Insider forms of corporate governance
内部形式的企业管理
Market-based forms of industrial relations
以市场为基础形式的劳资关系
Industrial relations systems based on bargaining &
long term commitment to employees
劳资关系系统基于协商谈判和对员工的长期承诺
Use of market mechanisms & contracts to
coordinate relations with suppliers/buyers
利用市场机制和合约来协调供应商与买家的关系
Use of non market mechanisms, coordinate relations
between firms & across industries & sectors
使用非市场机制来协调公司与各行业各部门之间的关系
Liberal Market
自由市场
Coordinated
Market
European
Developed
Asian
Developed
Asian
Emerging
United States 美国
United Kingdom英国
Canada加拿大
Australia澳大利亚
Germany德国
Denmark丹麦
Japan日本
United Kingdom英国
Japan日本
South Korea
南朝鲜
China中国
India印度
Vietnam越南
(ETUL 2009)
Union Density
CB Coverage
工会密度
CB覆盖
Austria澳大利亚
35
Belgium比利时
55
China 中国
48
Denmark丹麦
80
France法国
8
Germany德国
22
Italy意大利
34
Japan日本
22
Korea韩国
11
Sweden瑞典
78
United Kingdom英国
28
United States of America 美国
11
(ETUL 2009)
Union Density
CB Coverage
工会密度
CB覆盖
Austria澳大利亚
35
98
Belgium比利时
55
96
China 中国
48
32
Denmark丹麦
80
80
France法国
8
93
Germany德国
22
64
Italy意大利
34
80
Japan日本
22
18
Korea韩国
11
13
Sweden瑞典
78
90
United Kingdom英国
28
34
United States of America 美国
11
13
Core Labor Standards
核心劳工标准
•
Freedom of association & the Right to collectively bargain
自由联合以及集体谈判的权力
•
The elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor
消除一切形式的强迫和强制劳动
•
The abolition of child labor
废除童工
•
The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment &
occupation
消除在就业和职业方面的歧视
International Comparative Labor Movements
国际比较劳工运动
•
Industrial Relations Parties Actors
劳资关系
–
Unions (worker organizations)
工会(工人组织)
Structure, history, philosophy, methods of representation & action
结构、历史、理念、代表的方法及行动
–
Employers (employer organizations)
雇主(雇主组织)
Industry or sectoral associations, ownership, corporate governance
行业或部门组织、所有权和公司治理
–
The State (and its agencies)
政府的角色
legal environment, economic polices, political relations, dispute resolution, public sector
法律环境、经济政策、政治关系、争议解
决、公共部门
International Comparative Labor Movements
国际比较劳工运动
• Industrial Relations Process
劳资关系进程
– Collective bargaining
集体协商谈判
– Worker involvement & participation (in the workplace)
工人参与
– Influencing the state (political parties, lobbying)
影响政府 (政治团体、游说)
– Employer actions and management methods
雇主行动及管理方法
International Comparative Labor Movements
国际比较劳工运动
•
Current & Future Issues
当前与未来的问题
– Decline of union density
工会密度下降
– Work life balance
工作与生活的平衡
– Life long learning
终身学习
– Providing security in an increasingly insecure world of work
在日益不安全的工作环境中提供安全保障
Advancing the Field of Labor Relations: U.S.-China Exchange
劳动关系发展 – 中美教育交流项目
• Website网站: www.ALRexchange.org
• Workshops, lectures, discussions in China
开设在中国的研讨会、讲座、讨论
• Academic program
学术项目
• 2015 Conference in China
2015年在中国举行论坛
www.alrexchange.org
网站中文版亦可访问
Thank you!
谢谢
Please contact:
May Chen [email protected]
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Comparative Industrial Relations and Global Movements 比较工业