Immigration &
Urbanization
1877-1900
Created by
Mr. Johnson
Objective
• 5.01 – Evaluate
the influence of
immigration and
rapid
industrialization
on urban life.
Key Terms
Elevator
Electric Trolleys
Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
Phonograph
Thomas Edison
Typewriter
Jacob Riis
How the Other Half Lives
Jane Addams
Settlement Houses
Hull House
Culture Shock
Ellis Island
Angel Island
Dumbbell Tenements
Chinese Exclusion Act
Sweatshops
Amusement Parks
Spectator Sports
New Immigration
Old Immigration
Frederick Law Olmstead
Melting Pot
Salad Bowl
Cultural Pluralism
Nativism
Mark Twain – “The Gilded Age”
Robber Barons
Conspicuous Consumption
Rising Tide of
Immigration
Immigration & Urbanization
Old Immigration
New Immigration
New Immigration
Why They Came
• Job Opportunities
• Homestead Act
• Anti-Semitism
The Journey
• Ocean Liners
• Traveling in Steerage
• Into the Unknown
ARRIVAL
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•
•
•
•
Physical Exams
Quarantine
Name Changes
Culture Shock
Video – Edison Motion
Pictures
Medical Exams & Quarantine
Ellis Island, NY
Ellis Island, NY
Statue of Liberty, 1886
Statue of Liberty
Torch
– Light & hope
Seven Spires
– “Seven Seas”
Stone Tablet
– July IV MDCCLXXVI
“The New Colossus”
The New Colossus
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
—Emma Lazarus, 1883
Angel Island, San Francisco
Japanese “Picture Brides”
Nativism
American Party
• “Know-Nothings”
Nativist Laws
• Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
– Restricted immigration from China
• National Origin Quotas
• Gentlemen’s Agreement – U.S./Japan (1907)
– U.S. agrees to allow Japanese immigrants into U.S.
public schools
– Japan promises to restrict immigration
• Webb Alien Land Law (1913)
– California law
– Prohibits aliens from owning land
Thomas Nast: Catholic
INvasion
Thomas Nast: Irish Mob Rule
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
Immigration Today
New Ethnic
Neighborhoods
Theories of Culture
Melting Pot
Assimilation
Salad Bowl
Pluralism
Chinatown
• San Francisco
• Los Angeles
• New York City
Hester Street
St. Patrick’s Cathedral
St. Patrick’s Cathedral
“Little Italy”
The Lives of
Immigrants
Tenements
• One or more
families living in
a small
apartment
• Poor sanitation
& ventilation
Tenements
Tenements
Dumbbell Tenement
Immigrant Families
Sweatshops
• Urban factories
with poor
wages &
working
conditions
Jacob Riis
• How the Other Half
Lives (1890)
• Described the
working and living
conditions of
immigrants
• First “muckraker”
Jane Addams
• Settlement houses
– Educated, trained
Americans
– Living in poor immigrant
communities
– Art, education,
economic development
• Hull House, Chicago
Hull House
Horatio Alger
• Dime Novels
• The American Dream
– Honesty & hard work
– “Rags to riches” stories
Labor Stirrings
“Eight hours for work,
Eight hours for rest,
Eight hours for what we will.”
“Gotham”
New York City
Skyscrapers
• Office buildings
• Symbols of the corporations themselves
• Architects
– Function
– Aesthetics
Bessemer Process
• Steel vs. iron
– Lighter
– stronger
• Skyscrapers
• Bridges
Early Skyscrapers
Flatiron Building
Elevators
Grand Central Station
Electric Trolleys
Brooklyn Bridge
John A. Roebling, architect
“America’s
Second City”
Chicago
Railway Exchange &
Central YMCA
Louis Sullivan
Bayard-Condict Building
Transportation Building
Carson, Pirie, Scott Dept. Store
Sport,
Leisure &
Consumerism
Frederick Law Olmstead
• Public Parks
– Central Park, NY
– Prospect Park, NY
– Niagara Reservation
Central Park, NY
Central Park Today
The National Pastime
Boxing & College Football
Country Clubs
Bicycles
Coney Island, NY
Department Stores
Mail Order Catalogs
Typewriters & Secretaries
The Telephone
• Alexander Graham Bell
or Antonio Meucci?
Thomas Edison
Light Bulb
Phonograph
Eastman Kodak
“The New
South”
Henry Woodfin Grady
• Industrialization &
urbanization
• Free wage labor &
cordial race relations
• “New South”
Piedmont vs. Tidewater
Good Roads Movement
• Reasons
• Education
• Bicycles…
automobiles
• North Carolina –
“the good roads
state”
Company Towns
Company Towns
“Red Shirts”
• “Waving the bloody
shirt”
• White supremacy/
segregation
• Democrats/Ellison
Alger Smyth
Convict Labor
Birmingham Steel Mills
• Industrialization
• Convict
mine labor
Birmingham Steel Mills
Booker T. Washington
• Tuskegee Institute
• “Atlanta
Compromise”
Speech:
• Abandon civil rights
& challenges to
segregation
• Focus on economic
independence
• “Cast down your
bucket where you
are”
Review
Main Ideas
Immigration
• Push & pull factors
• Ellis & Angel Island
• Ethnic neighborhoods
• “Melting Pot” vs. “Salad
Bowl”
• Backlash against
immigration
Urbanization
• Population explosion
• Growth in city size
• New opportunities for
both men & women
• Tenement slums
• Mass transit
• Skyscrapers
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Immigration & Urbanization (1877-1900)