The Renaissance and
Reformation
Chapter 17
What was the Renaissance?
•
•
•
Renaissance = Rebirth
1350-1550 in European history was a
rebirth in art and learning
Subjects the Greeks and Romans
studied
Why Italy?
•
•
•
•
Center of the Roman Empire
Wealthy cities in the 1300s, they could
afford to pay painters, sculptors, architects
Italy was divided into independently run citystates which competed with each other
This competition brought out the
Renaissance
Renaissance Italy
What were the Famous City-States
of Italy?
• Florence- most famous, produced many
artists. The Medici family was Florence’s
richest.
• Venice- wealthiest. Sailors and
shipbuilders. Used canals instead of roads.
• Genoa
• Milan
• Rome
The Rise of Italian City-States
•
•
•
•
•
•
No ruler could unite Italy
City-states fought many wars over territory
They became wealthy through trade
because of Italy’s location
Were linked to the “east” during the middle
ages (Marco Polo), gained many new items
Each was ruled by one powerful man
Niccolo Machiavelli – wrote how a ruler
should maintain power – The Prince 1513
Machiavelli believed rulers
should do whatever it takes to
maintain power
“It is better to be feared than
loved”
New Ideas & Art
Section 2
Renaissance Humanism
•
•
•
•
•
Humanism – way of understanding the world
that believed that the individual and human
society were important
Francesco Petrarch- studied Roman writers
Dante Alighieri – poet, wrote the “The Divine
Comedy”
Chaucer – wrote “The Canterbury Tales”
Johannes Gutenberg- develop the printing
press
Renaissance Men
Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo
Buonarroti
Raphael Sanzio
-Scientist & Artist
-Dissected
corpses
-Famous
notebooks
-The Last Supper
-Mona Lisa
-Painter
-Frescoes
-The School of
Athens
-Painted, sculpted
and designed
buildings
-Sistine Chapel
ceiling
-The David
-Moses
Da Vinci
The Last Supper
Michelangelo
Raphael
William Shakespeare
•
•
•
•
Renaissance spreads north to England
Writer of tragedies, comedies, and historical
plays
Introduced over 1,000 words to the English
language
Hamlet, Macbeth, A Midsummer Night’s
Dream, and Romeo & Juliet among others!
Read “A Midsummer’s Night Dream”
On pages 627-632 and answer questions
1-5 on page 632. Questions will be
Collected.
The Reformation
Begins
Section 3
Calls for Church Reform
•
•
•
Reformation – many wanted to
“reform” the Catholic church
Many believed the church taxed
people too heavily and spent lavishly
Indulgences – sold by the church to
reduce a punishment for sin
Martin Luther
•
•
•
•
•
1517 – challenged the Catholic
Church and led a movement known as
Protestantism (to Protest)
Believed that only faith = salvation
Ninety Five Theses – arguments
against indulgences (Wittenberg)
Excommunicated by Pope
Created his own denomination
(branch)
Lutheranism
1. Faith in Jesus, not good works brings
salvation
2. The Bible is the final source of truth
about god, not priests.
3. Church is all believers, not just the
clergy
John Calvin
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calvinism – agreed w/ Luther but added some
new ideas
God decides everything in advance, including
who will go to heaven and hell: Predestination
To prove they were “chosen” people lived
good lives and worked hard
Kings couldn’t run the church
Became the Puritans
Believed in theocracy-church led government
Catholics &
Protestants
Section 4
Counter Reformation
•
•
•
•
•
1500s & 1600s Catholic Church set out to
defeat Protestantism = Counter –
Reformation
Bloody wars were fought until 1648
Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent to
fix the Catholic Church
Jesuits – Society of Jesus, pope’s agents to
spread Catholicism
Catholic kings sent missionaries to convert
Pope Paul III
More Counter Reformation
•
The Thirty Years’ War-worst religious war of the
Reformation
–
•
The Spanish Inquisition – Catholic Court used to
combat heresy
–
•
Protestants to the North of Europe, Catholics to the South
of Europe
Executed 2,000 Spaniards
King Henry IV of France a Catholic king allowed
French Protestants (Huguenots) to worship
France
Inquisition
Henry IV
Of Spain
Henry VIII King of England
•
•
•
•
•
Ruled 1509 – 1547
6 wives (2 divorces, 2 beheaded) because he
wanted a son
Pope refused his request for annulment,
makes like the marriage never happened
1534 The Act of Supremacy declared the king
head of the Church of England not the pope
The Anglican Church
The Six Wives of Henry VIII
Back and Forth in England
•
•
•
•
Henry’s daughter Mary becomes queen in
1553 and restores Catholicism
Arrested Protestants and had 300 burned at
the stake, “Bloody Mary”
After 5 years Mary died, her half-sister takes
the throne--Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth I – restored the Anglican
Church and became a great leader
Bloody Mary
Elizabeth I
END
Download

Ch.17 The Renaissance and Reformation