IV.Mediterranean Civilizations
A.Introduction
1.There were civilizations along the Mediterranean Sea too.
2.Purple dye from the city of Tyre helped make these people rich.
B.Phoenician Sea Power
1.The Phoenicians were a major sea power and looked west rather than east.
2.The Phoenicians traded cedar trees with other cultures in the ancient world.
3.They were a sea power from 1100 BC to 800 BC.
4.Tyre and Sidon became centers of trade and culture.
5.The Phoenicians were wealthy and were very respected.
C.The Phoenician Alphabet
1.The Phoenicians developed an alphabet based on sounds.
2.The alphabet was far easier to learn than other writing systems of the time.
(cuneiform and hieroglyphics)
D.The Rise of the Israelites
1.A second group of people settled in the Jordan River valley. (Israelites)
2.Abraham probably lived between 2000 BC and 1500 BC.
3.The Israelites trace their beginnings to Mesopotamia. (Sumer)
4.Abraham taught his people to practice monotheism. (a belief in one god)
5.Abraham led his people to Canaan until a famine came. They then went to
Egypt.
6.The Israelites soon were enslaved by the Egyptians. (Ramses the Great)
7.Moses led the Israelites back to Canaan. He also received the 10
Commandments.
8.King David established the capital in the city of Jerusalem.
9.Assyria conquered the Israelites after they split into two kingdoms.
10.The Israelites were exiled by the Assyrians and the Babylonians.
(Nebuchadnezzar)
V.Judaism
A.Introduction
1.The Torah says that God made a promise to Abraham.
2.This promise has helped shape the history of the people of Israel.
3.The Torah consists of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
B.The Beliefs of Judaism
1.Israelite beliefs developed into the religion we know today as Judaism.
2.The Israelites believed that God was present everywhere.
3.A covenant, or deal, was made between God and his “chosen people.”
4.The Ten Commandments are extremely important to the Israelites.
5.The Torah contains other rules besides the Ten Commandments.
6.Like many other ancient cultures, women had a lower status than men.
7.Women have struggled to take part in religious leadership roles.
8.Prophets have sometimes come to warn people not to disobey God.
9.Unlike other ancient cultures, the Israelites believed their leaders were human,
and not gods.
C.The Effects of Judaism
1.The Jewish homeland has been occupied by various foreign powers.
2.The Jewish diaspora has occurred many times in Jewish history.
3.Their heritage, close communities, and religious practices have united the Jews.
4.Judaism has influenced both Christianity and Islam. All share common beliefs.
Extra Notes:
Groups who persecuted the Jews: Egyptians, Assyrians, New Babylonians, Romans,
Germans (Hitler)
Civilization
Sumer
Babylonia
Assyria
Phoenicia
Israelites
Capital
Ur
Babylon
Nineveh
Sidon or Tyre
Jerusalem
Contribution
writing, wheel, etc.
Hammarabi’sCode
war
alphabet
monotheism
Two items the Phoenicians had to trade with: Cedar, Purple Dye
How the Phoenicians made their money: UPS “What can Purple Do for You”
The first 5 books of the Torah (Bible)
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Civilization Capital Contribution