Chapter Introduction Section 1: History and Governments Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles Visual Summary Regions Common threads of language and religion unite Latin America. Once claimed as European colonies, Latin American countries today are primarily Roman Catholic, and most still use either Spanish or Portuguese as the official language. These two languages are based on Latin, which is how the region gets its name. In what ways can language and religion both unite and divide a region? Section 1: History and Governments All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Native American civilizations of Latin America developed ways of living that used the resources of their environment. People who lived in different areas depended on trade to obtain the goods they wanted. In colonial times, the people of Latin America exchanged goods with Europeans. Section 2: Cultures and Lifestyles The characteristics and movement of people impact physical and human systems. The different groups who have settled Latin America include Native Americans, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. These groups have influenced the cultures and lifestyles of the region. All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Content Vocabulary • maize • empire • jade • cash crop • obsidian • caudillo • hieroglyphics • communist state Academic Vocabulary • complex • transform • stable • revolution A Mayan village in Guatemala remembers its dead in a spectacular way. For their Day of the Dead celebration—when people remember relatives and friends who have died—villagers create enormous kites of tissue paper, bamboo, and wire. Finished kites can reach 40 feet across! Sailing above local cemeteries, the kites create a symbolic link between the living and the dead. Read this section to learn more about the historical traditions that have shaped Latin America. Do you do anything special to honor loved ones that have passed away? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% A 0% B The Aztec people of central Mexico used cacao seeds—from which chocolate is made—for money. The government accepted the seeds as tax payment, and business owners accepted them as fair trade for their wares. It is even speculated that Aztec crooks made counterfeit seeds! Early History Some Native Americans developed advanced civilizations in the region. Europeans later conquered much of the region and set up colonies. Early History (cont.) • The Olmec civilization of southern Mexico lasted from 1500 B.C. to 300 B.C. – Some Olmec cities specialized in farming, growing maize, or corn, and squash and beans. – Others controlled important mineral resources such as jade and obsidian, a hard, black, volcanic glass. Early History (cont.) • The Maya lived in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula and surrounding areas between A.D. 300 and A.D. 900. • They used hieroglyphics to record their history. • About A.D. 900, the Maya civilization mysteriously collapsed. Native America Civilizations Early History (cont.) • Next, the Toltec seized what is now northern Mexico, building the city of Tula and conquering lands all the way to the Yucatán Peninsula. • Around A.D. 1200, the Aztec people from the north moved into central Mexico and captured Tula. • Tenochtitlán was the Aztec capital. Native America Civilizations Early History (cont.) • During the 1400s, the Inca empire, in what is now Peru in South America, stretched more than 2,500 miles (4,023 km) along the Andes. – The Inca ruler put in place a complex system of record keeping. Native America Civilizations Early History (cont.) • In 1519 a Spanish Army led by Hernán Cortés marched to Tenochtitlán, Mexico, and overtook the Aztec. • In 1532 Francisco Pizarro attacked the Inca, killed the ruler, and conquered that empire. Early History (cont.) • The Aztec and Inca conquests allowed Spain to build an empire that included much of South America, the Caribbean, Middle America, and parts of present-day United States. • Portugal took control of what is today Brazil. • France, Britain, and the Netherlands overtook some Caribbean areas and parts of North America. Early History (cont.) • The arrival of the Europeans transformed the populations of these lands by settling the land, setting up colonial governments, and spreading Christianity among the Native Americans. • They also used Native Americans as workers to grow cash crops. • Eventually, European landowners brought enslaved Africans for labor. Who built Latin America’s first civilization? A. Aztec B. Inca C. Maya D. Olmec 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Forming New Nations Most of Latin America gained independence in the 1800s, but hardships followed for many of the new nations. Forming New Nations (cont.) • In 1804, enslaved Africans under FrançoisDominique Toussaint-L’Ouverture threw off French rule in Haiti. • Haiti became the only nation ever created as a result of a revolt by enslaved people. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Despite many battles, Mexicans did not gain their independence until 1821, becoming a republic in 1823. – That same year, the countries of Central America won their freedom from Spain. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • In 1819 Simón Bolívar won freedom from the Spanish for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia. • In 1817 José de San Martín liberated Chile. • A few years later, San Martín and Bolívar jointly defeated the Spanish in Peru. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • By the end of the 1820s, all of Spain’s and Portugal’s colonies in Latin America had won their independence. • Many of the new Latin American countries ended slavery. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Many Latin American nations hoped their countries would become stable democracies with prosperous economies. – Obstacles arose, however, including conflict over the role of religion in their society, boundary lines, tensions between the rich and poor, and leaders known as caudillos who often ruled as dictators. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • During the late 1800s, businesspeople from the United States and Europe set up companies throughout Latin America, exporting such products as bananas, sugar, coffee, copper, and oil. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Some Latin American countries decided to grow only one or two key products. • Prices and profits increased as a result, but a decline in demand caused prices to drop, followed by losses in income and jobs. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Benefits to Latin America’s dependence on exports included foreign investors who built ports, roads, and railroads; in turn, these caused city growth and the creation of a middle class. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • In 1898 the United States and Spain fought a war over Spanish-ruled Cuba. Spain was defeated, and Cuba became a republic under U.S. protection. • The United States also gained control of Puerto Rico. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • In 1903 the United States helped Panama win its freedom from Colombia and gained permission to build the Panama Canal. • Over the next 25 years, American troops landed in Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic to protect U.S. political and economic interests. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • In the mid-1900s, Latin American leaders borrowed heavily from banks in other countries, acquiring a large debt that weakened their economies. – Prices rose, wages fell, and people lost jobs. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Dissatisfied political and social groups in some countries rebelled against leaders who ruled ruthlessly or were in power too long. • In 1959 a young lawyer named Fidel Castro carried out a revolution in Cuba and set up a communist state. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • In El Salvador, fighters supported by Castro battled government troops armed by the United States. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Difficult economic and political reforms in the 1980s helped strengthen many Latin American countries, but these changes were often harsh and turned many Latin Americans against dictators. • During the 1990s, democratic movements succeeded in several countries. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • Latin America’s population is growing rapidly, but resources are limited. • Growing trade in illegal drugs has increased crime and corruption, and tensions still exist between rich and poor. History at a Glance Forming New Nations (cont.) • In the early 2000s, angry voters in Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, Mexico, and Chile elected new leaders who promised changes that would weaken the power of the wealthy and benefit the poor. History at a Glance Who defeated the Spanish in 1819 and won freedom for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia? A. Hidalgo B. Morelos C. Bolívar D. San Martín A. B. C. D. A B C D The characteristics and movement of people impact physical and human systems. Content Vocabulary • migration • carnival • mestizo • mural • pidgin language Academic Vocabulary • element • comment • style Teenage girls celebrate their African heritage during Trinidad’s Children’s Carnival Competition. Carnival is celebrated in the days before Lent begins. Lent is a time of prayer and fasting in the Roman Catholic Church. During Carnival, both young people and adults dress in costumes. Costumes include characters from nursery rhymes and movie superheroes. As you read this section, you will learn about the different cultures of the people of Latin America. Are you familiar with your cultural heritage? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B 0% A 0% B Families of the dead in Guanajuato, Mexico, must pay a yearly grave tax, or the remains of their loved ones will be removed. Occasionally, cemetery workers discover a body that has naturally mummified, probably because of the dry air in the region. Recognizing a good source of income, the city opened the Mummy Museum with now more than a hundred mummies on display. This attraction draws 800,000 people a year to Guanajuato. The People Latin Americans come from a variety of cultures, but many share common characteristics. The People (cont.) • Latin America’s highest birthrates are in Central America. • Guatemala and Honduras are expected to double in population by 2050. • Most Latin Americans live in the favorable climates along the coasts of South America in an area reaching from Mexico into Central America. The People (cont.) • Migration to Latin America has included Europeans, Africans, and Asians, either willingly or by force. – Some Latin Americans migrate to the United States. – All of these new arrivals bring elements of their culture with them. The People (cont.) • Latin Americans also move within their country or the region. – In certain rural areas, population growth has resulted in a shortage of fertile land, and smaller farms cannot support large families. – People often leave to find jobs elsewhere, usually in cities, resulting in urbanization. The People (cont.) • Today most Latin Americans live in rapidly growing cities. • In South America, about 80 percent of people live in cities, but in Central America and the Caribbean, only about 65 percent are urban dwellers. The People (cont.) • Most Latin Americans leave villages for the cities to find better jobs, schools, housing, and health care. • As city populations grow, jobs and housing become scarce and many people find themselves in miserable conditions. The People (cont.) • Latin America’s people include Native Americans, Europeans, Africans, Asians, and mixtures of these groups. – Most of Latin America’s Native Americans live in Mexico; Central America; and the Andes countries of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The People (cont.) • Since the 1400s, millions of Europeans, mostly Spanish or Portuguese, have settled in Latin America. Italians, British, French, and Germans have come as well. – In the 1800s, many Spanish and Italian immigrants settled in Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile, so these three nations today are mainly populated by people of European descent. The People (cont.) • African Latin Americans form a high percentage of the populations in the Caribbean islands and northeastern Brazil. – They are descended from enslaved Africans brought as laborers during colonial days. The People (cont.) • Large Asian populations live in the Caribbean islands and some countries of South America. • In Guyana about one-half of the population is of South Asian or Southeast Asian ancestry. • Many people of Chinese descent make their homes in Peru, Mexico, and Cuba. • About 1 million people of Japanese descent live in Brazil. The People (cont.) • In countries such as Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, and Colombia, mestizos, or people of mixed Native American and European descent, make up the largest part of the population. • In Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Brazil, people of mixed African and European descent form a large percentage of the population. The People (cont.) • Spanish is the most widely spoken language in Latin America, but Brazilians mostly speak Portuguese. • Native American languages are still spoken in many countries. • Quechua, spoken centuries ago by the Inca, is an official language of Peru and Bolivia. The People (cont.) • In the Caribbean, English and French are widely spoken. • In some countries, people have developed a pidgin language by combining parts of different languages. • An example is Creole, spoken in Haiti. Which area of Latin America has the highest birthrate? A. Central America B. Mexico C. South America 0% A A. A B. B C.0%C B 0% C Daily Life Many aspects of daily life in Latin America reflect the region’s blend of cultures. Daily Life (cont.) • During colonial times, most Latin Americans became Christians, and Christianity still has the most followers. • Roman Catholics form the largest Christian group, but in recent years missionaries have encouraged many people to convert to Protestant forms of Christianity. Daily Life (cont.) • Many traditional Native American and African religions thrive, often mixed with Christianity and other faiths. • Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism, brought by Asian immigrants, are practiced in the Caribbean region and coastal areas of South America. • Judaism has followers in the largest Latin American cities. Daily Life (cont.) • Soccer is popular throughout the region. Baseball is popular in Cuba, the Caribbean, Central America, and northern South America. • Cricket is also a favorite sport. Daily Life (cont.) • Each spring, many countries hold a large festival called carnival on the last day before the Christian holy period called Lent. • On Mexico’s holiday known as the Day of the Dead, people honor family members who have died. Daily Life (cont.) • The foods of Latin America blend the traditions of the region’s many peoples. – Corn and beans are important in Mexico and Central America. – Beans and rice are popular in the islands of the Caribbean and in Brazil. Daily Life (cont.) – Fresh fish from the sea is also important in those areas. – Beef is the national dish in Argentina and Chile. Daily Life (cont.) • Cuban music is famous for its use of African rhythms. – The music of Cuba and Brazil has shaped American jazz. Daily Life (cont.) • During the 1930s, Mexican artists such as Diego Rivera painted murals, or large paintings on walls, that recall the artistic traditions of the ancient Maya and Aztec. • In Latin America, many writers have used their work to comment on social and political conflicts. Daily Life (cont.) • Latin American writers of the late 1900s invented an influential style of writing called magic realism that combines fantastic events with the ordinary. Which religion has the most followers in Latin America? A. Islam B. Hinduism C. Christianity D. Judaism 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Native American Civilizations • The Olmec built the first civilization in Latin America. • The Maya created a calendar and a complex number system. • The Aztec set up a large empire in central Mexico. • The Inca developed a network of roads to unite their territories. Colonial Rule • Spanish explorers conquered the Aztec and Inca Empires. • Spain and Portugal ruled most of Latin America from the 1500s to the early 1800s. • Colonial rule brought a mixing of different cultures. Forming New Nations • Most Latin American countries achieved independence during the 1800s. • Dictators, the military, or wealthy groups ruled Latin American countries, while most people remained poor and powerless. • Many Latin American countries developed more democratic systems in the 1900s. People • About 80 percent of South Americans live in urban areas. • Most people in Latin America are of European, Native American, or African background. • Most Latin Americans speak Spanish or Portuguese, and most practice the Roman Catholic faith. Culture • Family life is important to most Latin Americans. • Soccer and baseball are major sports in Latin America. • Food, arts, and music reflect the diverse ethnic mixture of the region. • Religious and patriotic holidays are important throughout Latin America. maize corn jade shiny stone that comes in many shades of green obsidian hard, black, volcanic glass useful for making weapons hieroglyphics system of writing that uses small pictures to represent sounds or words empire collection of different territories united under the rule of one government cash crop farm product grown for export caudillo Latin American ruler, often a military officer or wealthy individual ruling as a dictator communist state country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole complex highly developed transform greatly change stable firmly established; not likely to change suddenly or greatly revolution one complete circuit around the sun; sweeping change migration movement of people mestizo in Latin America, a person of mixed Native American and European heritage pidgin language language formed by combining parts of several different languages carnival large festival held each spring in countries in Latin America on the last day before the Christian holy period called Lent mural large painting on a wall element part of something larger comment talk about style form To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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