SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the
Renaissance and Reformation.
a. Explain the social, economic, and political changes that contributed to
the rise of Florence and the ideas of Machiavelli.
b. Identify artistic and scientific achievements of Leonardo da Vinci, the
“Renaissance man,” and Michelangelo.
c. Explain the main characteristics of humanism; include the ideas of
Petrarch, Dante, and Erasmus.
d. Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation; include the ideas of
Martin Luther and John Calvin.
e. Describe the Counter Reformation at the Council of Trent and the role
of the Jesuits.
f. Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and
Elizabeth I.
g. Explain the importance of Gutenberg and the invention of the printing
• Renaissance – means “rebirth” of
intellectual learning.
– It was an era in which artists, architects,
philosophers, political thinkers, scientists, and
even theologians believed in reviving the
classical ideas of ancient Greece and Rome.
– It was a rebirth of culture, thought and
civilization and more emphasis on worth and
potential of the individual.
Among all city-states, none rose
to more prominence that
Florence, Italy. Florence
became the cultural center of
Italy and the Italian Renaissance.
1. Explain Renaissance and identify the accomplishments of the
following key figures:
Leonardo da Vinci—Arts—epitomized the Renaissance his skill
in various areas, such as a sculpture, painting
(The Last Supper and Mona Lisa), architecture,
science, and engineering.
William Shakespeare—literary works such as Romeo & Juliette
and Othello.
Michelangelo—involved in painting—Sistine Chapel,
sculpture— statue of David and Pieta—a moving depiction
of Mary holding her dead son, Jesus, across her lap,
and architecture—the dome at St. Peter’s Basilica in
Raphael—painted The School of Athens in the Vatican palace.
1. Which Renaissance artist is responsible for this painting?
A. Raphael
C. da Vinci
B. Botticelli
D. Michelangelo
D. Michelangelo
2. Michelangelo’s masterpiece Pietà depicts Jesus in Mary’s lap. What
aspects of this religious sculpture make it one of the finest examples of
Renaissance Period art?
A. the depiction of grandeur, grace, order and harmony
B. the expression of anger, horror, and betrayal
C. the use of abstract symbolism
D. the lack of detail A. the depiction of grandeur, grace, order and harmony.
3. Which Renaissance artist is responsible for this painting?
A. Raphael
C. da Vinci
B. Botticelli
D. Michelangelo
C. da Vinci
4. Some of the world's best known masterpieces, such as those created by
Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, were produced in Italy during the
A. Reformation.
C. Renaissance.
B. Enlightenment.
D. Scientific Revolution.
C. Renaissance.
Science and Technology
Nicholas Copernicus—put forth the theory that
the Earth and all the other planets revolve
around the sun. (Heliocentric theory)
Johannes Gutenberg—developed the moveable metal type
printing press—exerted a powerful influence on
education, religion, and politics; the Gutenberg Bible
(increased literacy)
Machiavelli—wrote (The Prince) which showed the spirit of
Renaissance by its use of secular principles of
discussing government. He claimed that the state
could use whatever means necessary to preserve
itself—the end justified the means.
· He was born in Florence, Italy in 1469.
·His best-known book describes the methods by which a ruling prince
can maintain control of his realm.
· His name has become synonymous with the use of cunning and
deceitful tactics in politics.
1. Which Renaissance figure is being described in these statements?
A. Cosimo Medici
C. Piero Soderini
B. Leonardo da Vinci
D. Niccolo Machiavelli
D. Niccolo Machiavelli
He was a German goldsmith and printer who is credited with being the
first European to use "movable type" printing.
·He is credited with inventing the mechanical printing press.
·His major work was a Bible which was acclaimed for its high aesthetic
and technical quality.
2. Which Renaissance figure is being described by these statements?
A. Johann Fust
C. Peter Schöffer
B. Johannes Gutenberg D. Leonardo da Vinci
B. Johannes Gutenberg
2. Explain the purpose of the Protestant Reformation.
Protestant Reformation—began by Martin Luther (posted on the
church door his 95 Thesis—a list of practices he thought the Catholic
Church needed to change, he believed that the Bible was the only
source of God’s truth not Catholic traditions).
1. The teachings of Martin Luther sparked the
A. Middle Ages.
C. Renaissance.
B. Industrial Revolution.
D. Protestant Reformation
D. Protestant Reformation
2. The Protestant Reformation MOST LIKELY resulted in the formation
of which of these Christian churches?
A. Lutheran
C. Russian Orthodox
A. Lutheran
B. Catholic
D. Greek Orthodox
F. Describe the English Reformation and the role of
Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.
• English king Henry VIII wanted to divorce
his wife because she “failed” to produce a
male heir. The pope refused to sanction
the divorce.
• Enraged, King Henry established the
Henry VIII
Church of England in 1534, proclaiming it
free from the influence of the pope. He
made himself the “only supreme head” of
the Church of England
• His daughter Elizabeth I brought great
wealth to the country. She is believed to be
a greater ruler than her father.
Elizabeth I
3. Describe the Counter Reformation and the English
Counter Reformation or Catholic Reformation—attempt to
clean up the Catholic Church by creating a religious order
known as the Jesuits which had three goals: to start schools
throughout Europe where Jesuits could teach the class and
theology; Convert non-Christians to Christianity through
mission efforts; and to stop the spread of Protestantism.
Mainly, to restore the power of the Catholic Church.
English Reformation—the transformation in England
from the Roman Catholic Church to the Church of
England; led by Queen Elizabeth I and continued by King
Henry VIII (made himself the head of the Church of England
and later got a divorce).
SSWH10 The student will analyze the impact of the age of
discovery and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and
a. Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors;
include Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher
Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, and
Samuel de Champlain.
b. Define the Columbian Exchange and its global
economic and cultural impact.
c. Explain the role of improved technology in European
exploration; include the astrolabe.
A. Explain the roles of explorers and conquistadors; include
Zheng He, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand
Magellan, James Cook, and Samuel de Champlain.
• Vasco da Gama – Portuguese
explorer sailed around Africa to
India. Helped the Portuguese to have
dominance over the Indian Ocean and
its trade routes
• Christopher Columbus – in 1492, he
reached the Americas, exploring
Cuba, the Bahamas, and Hispaniola
(Haiti & Dominican Republic).
• Ferdinand Magellan – although he didn’t
survive, he and his crew were the first to
officially circumnavigate (sail around) the
• Samuel de Champlain – helped
establish France’s first successful
colony at Quebec (Canada) in 1608.
1. Which route is showing the path traveled by explorer Samuel de
A. A.
2. Which route is showing the path traveled by European explorer
Christopher Columbus?
B. B.
4. Identify the role/accomplishments of the following explorers—
Marco Polo—wrote stories about travels (with his father) in Asia.
Prince Henry the Navigator (Portugal) set up School of Navigation—students
learned how to use new ships and instruments that would develop trade with Africa and
Bartolomeu Dias—sailed around the Cape of Good Hope (the Southern tip of Africa).
Vasco da Gama—sailed around Africa and became the first European to reach India by
Christopher Columbus—“in 1492 sailed the ocean blue” explores the West Indies;
given credit for finding North America (King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella—Spanish
rulers who sponsored Columbus’s voyages).
John Cabot—explored North America for the British (northern area near Canada:
Amerigo Vespucci—explored present day South America (the country America named
in honor of him).
Ferdinand Magellan—1st person to sail around the world proving the Earth was
round; finds waterway to Pacific Ocean.
Juan Ponce de Leon—Spanish conquistador who explored present-day
Florida in search for gold and “the Fountain of Youth”; failed mission.
St. Augustine, a settlement on the coast of Florida by the Spanish;
became the 1st European settlement in North America (present-day
United States) and vital for control of Spanish trade with Mexico.
Vasco Balboa—explored Pacific Ocean.
Francisco Pizarro—conquered the Inca (South America) and claimed
area for Spain.
Jacques Cartier—explored the St. Lawrence River for French.
Samuel de Champlain—French explorer looking for the Northwest
Passage who founded the city of Quebec and is called the Father of New
France, France’s colony in the New World.
Hernando Cortez—Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec’s
capital city (Tenochtitlan) present day Mexico City; captured the Aztecs,
Pizzaro the Incas (Peru, South America).
B. Define the Columbian Exchange and its global economic and
cultural impact.
• Columbian Exchange –
refers to the exchange that
arose between Eastern
and Western hemispheres.
It included the exchange
of raw materials, people,
ideas, religion, products,
and diseases.
– It had detrimental effects on native peoples
who were subject to conquest, slavery, and the
devastation of diseases brought by their
European Invaders.
5. Explain the Columbian Exchange.
Columbia Exchange—mixing of European culture with the
native cultures of North and South America. The cultural
diffusion of the Western Hemisphere exchange of words
from their languages. The transformation of plants,
animals, and diseases from the Old World to the New
Europeans brought tea, sugar, and coffee to the
America and animals, such as horses and cattle, and
plants that were not native to the New World.
Native Americans introduced tobacco, potatoes, corn,
tomatoes, and chocolate to Europe.
Europeans disrupted or destroyed Native American societies:
Europeans diseases killed 80% of Native American population and
others were forced into labor by European colonizers.
• New World
• Old World
· Plants were spread from one continent to another.
· Animals and diseases were introduced to new areas.
· Populations were destroyed by foreign contact.
· The process began in the late 15th century.
1. All of these are describing
A. the Silk Roads
C. scientific discovery.
B. the Columbian Exchange D. circumnavigation of the world.
B. the Columbian Exchange
2. The Columbian Exchange can trace its development to
A. voyages of European discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries.
B. overland native trade routes in the 14th and 15th centuries.
C. Indian Ocean mariners in the 13th and 14th centuries.
D. Crusaders in the 11th and 12th centuries.
A. voyages of European discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries.
6. Explain the Scientific Revolution and identify the accomplishments of
the following:
Francis Bacon—Scientific Method
Isaac Newton—Law of Gravity
Galileo Galilei—laws of motion are
universal; used telescope
to proved Copernicus’ theory true).
Why did the findings of Galileo frighten Catholic and
Protestant leaders?
A. His findings supported the theories of Aristotle.
B. His findings did not support the Copernician theory.
C. His findings led him to rebel against the Cardinals.
D. His findings went against Church teaching and
D. His findings went against Church teaching and authority.
7. Identify major ideas and persons of Enlightenment and their
relationship to politics and society.
Jean Rousseau—Social Contract Theory (government must exist to
benefit the people it governs, if it fails then the government must be
abolished or changed by its people)
John Locke’s—Two Treatise of Government (based ideas on people
right to natural rights: life, liberty, and property)
Thomas Jefferson—author of the Declaration of Independence
(document that separated colonies from England)—natural rights are
life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
[I]t is plainly contrary to [against] the law of nature... that children should command old
men, fools wise men, and that the privileged few should gorge themselves... while the
starving multitude are in want of the bare necessities of life.
Rousseau, Second Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, 1755
1. Rousseau's ideas of "natural law" led to his publication of The Social Contract in
1763. His writings reflect Enlightenment ideals because he desired
A. greater rights for common people.
B. harmony between faith and reason.
C. a return to the primacy of the Catholic Church.
D. a rebirth of the classical ideals of Greece and Rome.
A. greater rights for common people.
2. Social Contract Theory holds that governments get their power from the people, and
that if the government no longer serves the people it can be overthrown. Which of
these offers the BEST example of Social Contract Theory in practice in America?
A. The Mayflower Compact
C. The Albany Plan of Union
B. The Articles of Confederation
D. The Declaration of Independence
D. The Declaration of Independence
8. Identify causes and results of revolutions in England (1689), United
States, France, Haiti, and Latin America.
Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King
James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians. The result left William
of Orange together his wife Mary II (James II daughter) of England in leadership
sharing power with the parliament. It was also called the Bloodless Revolution.
American Revolution was the political unrest which thirteen colonies in North
America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to
become the United States of America. They first rejected the authority of the
Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and
then expelled all royal officials. The American colonies victory from England gave
birth to the ethic that has formed a core of political values in the United States. It was
also called the Revolutionary War.
French Revolution was a period of radical social and political unrest in French
and European history. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries
collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal,
aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from left-wing
political groups and the masses on the streets. Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition
succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
French Revolution
Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) was a period of conflict in the French colony of
Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the
founding of the Haitian republic. Haiti was successful in achieving permanent
independence under a new nation. The Haitian Revolution is regarded as a defining
moment in the history of Africans in the New World.
Latin American Wars of Independence were the various revolutions that took
place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a
number of independent countries in Latin America. These revolutions followed the
American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish,
Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas.
The revolution in France at the end of the 18th century was responsible for
A. ending British rule in Normandy.
B. causing the American Revolution.
C. ending the era of the Enlightenment.
D. inspiring revolutions in Latin America.
D. inspiring revolutions in Latin America.
Haitian Revolution
• Toussaint L’Ouverture – gifted and educated slave
became leader of a slave rebellion on the island of
Hispaniola in 1791.
After being killed his followers
continued to fight and they defeated
the French and established the new
nation of Haiti.
SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of
long-term causes of World War I and its global impact.
a. Identify the causes of the war; include Balkan nationalism,
entangling alliances, and militarism.
SSWH17 The student will be able to identify the major political
and economic factors that shaped world societies between World
War I and World War II.
b. Determine the causes and results of the Russian Revolution from
the rise of the Bolsheviks under Lenin to Stalin’s first Five Year
c. Describe the rise of fascism in Europe and Asia by comparing the
policies of Benito Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Germany, and
Hirohito in Japan.
f. Explain the aggression and conflict leading to World War II in
Europe and Asia
9. What event immediately precedes the beginning of World War I? What country
provoked the United States involvement in World War I? How?
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Crown Prince Austria Hungray) was assassinated by
a Serbian Black Hand. There was a continuing hatred of Germany’s aggression on
the seas to sink U.S boats. Germany was thinking the U.S. was delivering
weapons to opposing foreign nations. Sinking of the Lusitania—when German Uboats sank the British liner, killing 128 Americans on May 7, 1915.
1. On May 7, 1915, a German submarine torpedoed and sank
A. the Sussex.
C. the Lusitania.
B. the Titanic
D. the Queen Mary.
C. the Lusitania.
2. Which country was an ally of the United States during World War I?
A. France
C. Sweden
B. Spain
D. Turkey
A. France
10. Identify causes which lead to the global impact of the World War I
Nationalism—(Love of Country) Balkan nationalism, the people of the
Balkans believed that Bosnia should be part of a new Slavic state, but
European powers placed Bosnia under Austro-Hungarian control.
Imperialism—Larger more powerful nations wanting to control smaller
weaker nations.
Militarism—In the late 1800s and early 1900s, European countries like
France, Germany, and Great Britain were engaged in an arms race,
military buildup.
Alliance System—Entangling alliances in the late 1800s and early
1900s, many European nations made alliances with each other to end
conflicts (obligation to aid their allies in the event of war).
A. Identify the causes of the war; include Balkan nationalism,
entangling alliances, and militarism.
• Caused by nationalism, imperialism, and militarism,
and alliances.
• In the Balkans various ethnic groups launched
successful revolutions against the Ottoman Empire
and won their independence.
Effects of World War
1. Those killed, wounded, or missing amounted to
37 million people.
2. Peace treaties between the:
Allies: Great Britain, France, Italy, and the
United States
Central Powers: Austria- Hungary, Germany,
Bulgaria, and Turkey.
3. Treaty of Versailles (1919) required that
Germany limit its weapons, pay heavy fines,
and return territories taken in the war.
Effects of World War
4. Formation of the League of Nations
(1920), a world organization that promoted
peace and understanding between
nations. The United States did not join.
5. Changes in the map of Europe; Austria,
Poland, and Hungary became
independent nations; Italy, Greece, and
France acquired more territory.
B. Describe conditions on the war front for soldiers; include the
Battle of Verdun.
• The War Front – area where opposing armies meet in
battle. Soldiers died by the thousands.
• Trench Warfare was the style of fighting that was
New Technology
• Machine Gun
• Poisonous gasses
Led to the development of tanks
and airplanes as important
11. Explaining aggression and conflict leading to World War II (describing Pearl
Harbor and D-Day)?
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged
without the justification of self-defense usually for territorial gain. The main
causes of World War II were nationalistic tensions, unresolved issues, and resentments
resulting from the World War I and the interwar period in Europe, plus the effects of
the Great Depression in the 1930s.
The culmination of events that led to the outbreak of war are generally understood to be
the 1939 invasion of Poland by Germany and the 1937 invasion of the Republic of
China by the Empire of Japan.
The Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, hoping
to destroy the United States Pacific Fleet at anchor. Even though the Japanese knew
that the U.S. had the potential to build more ships, they hoped that they would feed
reinforcements in piecemeal and thus the Japanese Navy.
Japan's attack on the US, resulted in an immediate declaration of a state of war
between the two nations. D-Day (June 6, 1944) the Allies invasion of Normany
(northern coast of France), it was the code name for the first day of Operation
Overload lead by Dwight D. Eisenhower—United States general who led Allies forces
in Europe during World War II.
A. Describe the major conflicts and outcomes; include
Pearl Harbor and D-Day.
• Began when Hitler (Germany) invaded
Poland in 1939.
• US became involved when Japan
bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii,
December 7, 1941. US declared war
on Japan
Sank or damaged 12 naval vessels
Destroyed almost 200 planes
Killed or wounded nearly 3,000 people
President Roosevelt described as “a day
which will live in infamy!”
1. President Franklin Roosevelt said that December 7, 1941, would "live
in infamy" because on that day
A. Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.
B. France was invaded by Germany.
C. Japan invaded the Philippines.
D. German U-boats sank the Lusitania.
A. Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.
2. This image would have been MOST likely to have been found in the
United States in which time period?
A. Cold War
C. World War I
B. World War II
D. Seven Years' War
B. World War II
12. Explain the Holocaust.
Holocaust also known as The Shoah was the genocide of
approximately six million European Jews and millions of others
during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored
murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, throughout Nazi-occupied
13. What was the term for the continuous conflicting political and
military confrontations between the United States and Soviet
Communist countries after WWII until 1991?
Cold War (not fighting just threats of nuclear war – disagreement
on political and economic issues), this term describes the hostile
relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The
battle between two superpowers and their respective allies was fought
primarily through political and economic means, not erupting into actual
warfare between the two countries.
B. Identify Nazi ideology, policies, and consequences that led to
the Holocaust.
• The Nazi’s believed that the Aryan race (people of
white, Western European descent) was biologically
superior to other races
• Hitler blamed the entire Jewish Community as antiGerman and a major source of the nation’s woes.
Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jewish people) grew
throughout Germany
• The Holocaust – 6 million Jews were murdered by Hitler’s regime.
C. Explain the military and diplomatic negotiations between the leaders
of Great Britain (Churchill), the Soviet Union (Stalin), and the United
States (Roosevelt/Truman) from Teheran to Yalta and Potsdam and the
impact on the nations of Eastern Europe.
• Potsdam Conference
(1945) – Truman, Churchill,
and Stalin met and
reaffirmed their policy of
unconditional surrender for
• Iron Curtain – Dividing line
between free-democratic
Western Europe and
communist, Soviet-led
Eastern Europe.
Iron Curtain
14. Name the country that was the first to put a satellite in space. What
was the name of this satellite?
Soviet Union (Russia) Sputnik I artificial satellite (October 4, 1957).
This satellite was the first to orbit the earth. Sputnik II, the Soviets
launched a dog, (Laika) into space inside of the spacecraft.
15. Identify ethnic conflict and new nationalisms (i.e. religions,
terrorism, etc.).
Ethnic conflicts: In the mid to late 20th century and early 21st century,
ethnic conflicts have arisen around the world. Many of these are tied to
the artificial boundaries created by European imperialists in Asia,
Africa, and the Middle East and from the end of Soviet control in
Eastern Europe. In some places, like Cambodia, Bosnia, and Sudan,
there have been ethnic conflicts resulting in genocide.
New nationalisms: Nationalism in places such as India, South Africa,
and Kenya helped lead to the end of colonial or European rule. For
example, in South Africa, whites of European descent controlled the
majority black popular through the system of Apartheid. The nationalist
African National Congress worked against this system for years,
eventually toppling the minority government and making a relatively
peaceful transfer of power.
Impact of terrorism: Terrorism is a hard word to define, but a good
way to look at it could be like a synthesis of war and theater. It is a
dramatization of the most proscribed kind of violence that which is
perpetrated on innocent lives, played before an audience in the hope of
creating a mood of fear for political purposes. There are many terrorist
groups but there have been some big name groups come to life
during the 20th century, such as Shining Path, Red Brigade, Hamas,
and Al Qaeda.

SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity