When you are involved a debate, do you
prefer to have others on your side helping
or to argue on your own?
A. Others helping
B. On your own
A. A
B. B
0%
A
0%
B
Chapter 6 The American
Revolution (1776-1783)
Section 2 The War Continues
How did the United States gain
allies and aid during the
Revolutionary War?
After Saratoga
• Saratoga was a turning
point, Patriot victory
now seemed possible
• European nations,
especially France saw
that the Americans
might actually win
• Ben Franklin went to
Paris, France to seek
French support
• The French gave to the
Americans secretly, but
were not their
allies…..yet
France
• After Saratoga, France
openly announced their
support of the United
States
• February 1778- France
and the US worked out
a trade agreement and
an alliance
• France declared war on
Britain
• Also sent money,
equipment, and troops
to aid (help) the
Patriots
Spain
• Other European nations
helped as well, mainly
because they hated the
British
• Spain did not recognize
American Independence,
but still declared war on
Britain in1779
• The Spanish governor of
Louisiana, Bernardo de
Galvez raised an army
• This army forced the
British out and captured
forts at Mobile and
Pensacola
• This diverted British
troops from other fronts of
the war
What is the main reason that European
nations helped the Americans fight for
independence?
A. They knew America would
become a superpower one day.
0%
0%
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D
0%
C
D. They disliked the British.
A
B
C
D
B
C. They admired their cause.
A.
B.
C.
D.
A
B. The American politicians
promised them money in return.
Winter of 1777-1778
• Howe and the British
spent the winter in
comfort in Philadelphia
• About 20 miles west,
Washington set up his
camp at Valley Forge
• Washington and the
army endured terrible
suffering
• Lacked food, clothing,
shelter, and medicine
• Washington’s biggest
challenge was keeping
the army together
Valley Forge
• Due to snowstorms and
damaged roads, it was
hard to get supplies in
• The Continental army
build huts and gathered
supplies from the
countryside
• Volunteers, including
Martha Washington,
made clothes and cared
for the sick
• Washington said no
army had ever suffered
“such uncommon
hardships” with such
“patience and fortitude.”
Joseph Martin at Valley Forge
• Joseph Martin, a young private
from Connecticut wrote;
• “Most of the men lacked
blankets, shoes, and shirts.”
• Martin made a pair of rough
moccasins and later wrote
• “The only alternative I had, was
to endure this inconvenience
and go barefoot, as hundreds
of my companions had to, till
they might be tracked by their
blood upon the rough frozen
ground”
More of Valley Forge
• Many men deserted (left
without permission)
• Some officers resigned
• The army was falling apart
• With strong determination,
the Continental Army
survived the winter
• Conditions improved and
new recruits joined
• “The army grows stronger
everyday”
• April 1778, Washington
told the troops of the
alliance with France
• The Army celebrated with
a religious festival and a
parade
Help From Overseas
• Among the leaders at
Valley Forge was a
French nobleman- the
Marquis de Lafayette
• Lafayette offered his help
to Washington and
became a trusted aide to
him
• Others also helped the
American cause
including polish engineer
Thaddeus Kosciusko and
cavalry officer Casimir
Pulaski
More Help From Overseas
• Prussian officer Friedrich von
Steuben helped drill the
Patriot troops at Valley Forge
• Taught the soldiers military
discipline
• Turned the ragged group into
an effective fighting force
• Spaniard Juan de Miralles
befriended the Patriot leaders
and loaned money to the
cause
• Other Europeans who had
recently moved to the United
States joined the Patriot
cause
• Even with help, the
Continental Army still needed
large amounts of money to
continue to fight the war
Money Problems
• Getting money to finance the
war was a major problem
• Continental Congress had
no power to raise money
through taxes
• Some money came in from
the states and other
countries, but much more
was needed
• Congress and the states
printed hundreds of millions
of dollars’ worth of paper
money
• There was not enough gold
or silver backing them and
they lost value
• This led to inflation
• No one would take the
money and Congress
stopped making them
Changing Attitude
• Ideals of liberty and
freedom inspired the
American Revolution
• These same ideals
caused some women to
question their place and
treatment in American
society
• Judith Sargeant Murray
argued that women’s
minds are as good as
men’s
• Therefore women should
also get an education
• Abigail Adams also stood
up for women’s interests
Hopes For Equality
• The ideals of the
Revolutionary War led some
white Americans to question
slavery
• Governor Livingston of New
Jersey asked the legislature
to free all enslaved people in
the state
• Livingston said slavery was
“utterly inconsistent with the
principles of Christianity and
humanity”
• Many other states attempted
to end slavery
• The issue (matter) of slavery
would remain unsettled for
many years
Treatment of Loyalists
• Thousands of
Loyalists fought for the
British
• Some spied on
Patriots
• Many fled the colonies
• Those that remained
faced difficult times
• Shunned by neighbors
• Became victims of
mob violence
Britannia offers solace and a promise of
compensation for her exiled American
born Loyalists.
How did the United States gain allies and
aid during the Revolutionary War?
-Britain had many European Rivals
-Benjamin Franklin convinced France to send
money
-After Saratoga, other British rivals joined
Chapter 6 Section 2 Quiz
George Washington's greatest
challenge at Valley Forge was keeping
the British away.
his spirits up.
his army together.
entertainment for
his army.
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A.
B.
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Which problem caused Congress
to stop issuing paper money?
cold winter
inflation
slavery
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A.
B.
C.
D.
Who made clothes for the troops and
cared for the sick at Valley Forge?
A. Abigail Adams
B. Judith Sargeant
Murray
C. Martha
Washington
D. Betsy Ross
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25% 25% 25% 25%
The man who turned the ragged Continental
Army into a more efficient fighting force was
A. Casimir Pulaski.
B. Friedrich von
Steuben.
C. Thaddeus
Kosciusko.
D. Juan de Miralles.
.
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25% 25% 25% 25%
The nation that made an alliance with the
revolutionary United States in 1778 was
Spain.
France.
Great Britain.
Canada.
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Chapter 6 The American Revolution (1776