How to combine Integration
and Diversities ?
The Challenge of a European
Union Multicultural
Marco Martiniello
Preliminary Remarks:
Anti-multiculturalism backlash and the neoassimilationist political and policy agenda:
“We are all anti-multiculturalist now !”
The rise of the diversity discourse and of
the “interculturalist” discourse
A contradiction ?
Preliminary Remarks: features
of anti-multiculturalism
Focus on Islam and Muslims
Obligations precede rights
Retreat from the state
A selective immigration policy
A European debate on “integration” of
1. The context: the diversification of
EU diversity – EU “super diversity”
diversities in the EU
3. Do we need a EU abstract model of
“diversity management”?
4.Towards a multicultural citizenship
of the European Union?
5. Conclusion
PART 1 – The context: the
diversification of EU
diversity- EU “super diversity”
A wide variety of identities
A process of diversification of diversity
The sources the
diversification of EU
Sub-national political mobilization
Immigration: diversification of patterns,
Gypsy - Roma populations
Jewish communities
Social and economic
A European permanent underclass ?
New configurations of inequality within
mainstream society
Other dimensions of
Political diversity
The Gender Dimension of Diversity
Sexual Orientation
PART 2 - The Issue
How can the EU combine the search for a more
united and integrated social and political space
while at the same time recognizing the various
dimensions of its diversity and fostering more
social and economic equality ?
PART 3 - Do we need a EU
Model of Diversity
Management ?
various national narratives of citizenship,
Integration and Multiculturalism
A dimension of national sovereignty
The debates focuses on the position of immigrants
and their offspring
However, the debate concerns the whole society
Priority to a pragmatic approach
PART 4 - Towards a Multicultural
Citizenship of the EU?: 5 points
Cultural Diversity and Social Justice
Equal basic Rights and Duties
The symbolic Recognition of Diversity
Integration, Diversity and Public Policies
The Issue of Political Representation
Cultural Diversity and Social
Combining issues related to cultural
diversity and issues related to Social Justice
More social and economic equality brings
more open ethno-cultural identities
Equal Basic Rights and Duties
The supporting Pillar of EU multicultural
Extension of EU cit to all legal thirdcountries residents
Equal Basic Rights and Duties
Respecting core values ?:
– Democracy and democratic procedures
– Gender Equality
– Rights of the human person and respect of her
physical and psychological integrity
– The principle of non-discrimination
– Respect for diversity (cultural, religious, etc.)
The Symbolic Recognition of
Europe can not be defined by its JudeoChristian heritage only.
Recognizing diversity without rigidifying
ethnic, racial and religious boundaries
The recognition is mutual
Role of Arts and cultural institutions
Integration, Diversity and
Public Policies (1)
The case for State and EU interventions
No miraculous “model” to import
Constitutional solutions ?
Daily ‘savoir-faire’
Integration, Diversity and
Public Policies (2)
Financial support of associations engaged
in the promotion of multicultural dialogue
Strong anti-discrimination and anti-racist
legislations and policies
Integration, Diversity and
Public Policies (3)
Opening up public education to cultural
– Promoting multilingualism
– More diverse curricula
Integration, Diversity and
Public Policies (4)
Accommodation of religious diversity:
– Not only Islam
– Equal treatment of all religions and nonreligious beliefs
Integration, Diversity and
Public Policies (5)
Access to Citizenship:
– Liberalizing access for permanent residents
– Double Citizenship ?
– Direct access to EU citizenship ?
Integration, Diversity and
Public Policies (6)
Political Participation and Representation
– Local voting and eligibility Rights
– Forms of Consultation
– Elected political institutions should reflect the
sociological diversity. The case for Affirmative
Action ?
A united and integrated democratic EU can only
be diverse and multicultural
“multicultural citizenship supposes the
constitution of a citizenry made of active
citizens who share the same rights and duties,
the same public space, support the democratic
project and respect the law and the legal and
political procedures. These citizens can
display varied and multiple identities as
different cultural practices both in private
and in public. Their identity and cultural
choices do not affect their position in the
social, economic and political order”
There is a long way between reality and utopia