Protestant Reformation
The Beginning of Religious
Toleration and the Acceptance
of Dissent
Holy Eucharist – or Communion
Communion
Bread and Wine
Based on the Last Supper
Roman Catholics believe in
Transubstantiation
through the blessing, the substance of the bread and
wine are exchanged for the body and blood of
Jesus;
Most Protestant Religions believe that the
Bread and Wine are merely Symbolic
and all people should drink
What are the Precipitating
Factors of the Reformation?
• New ideas of the Renaissance.
• New technology of the printing press.
• Worldly concerns of the Renaissance
popes.
• Low standards of many local priests
– uneducated, had wives, and unable to provide
good spiritual guidance to people.
• The zeal of indulgence sellers.
John of Wycliffe
in England
Late 1300s
First person to produce
hand-written copies of the
Bible in the English
language....
John Wycliffe Claimed
• Eucharist was merely symbolic
• Pope was not the final authority
• All people can drink from the communion
cup
Jan Huss in
the HRE
• 1390 – Wycliffe's writings reach eastern Europe
• 1398 – Huss teaches heretic ideas in Czechoslovakia.
1410 - Huss and his followers excommunicated by Pope John
XXIII
• 1415 - Jan Huss burned at the stake for heresy.
Gutenberg- Printing Press
The invention that changed
the world
• 1450s - Created in Mainz, Germany
An Original Guttenberg Bible sold for
$5,400,000.00!!!! You may want to
check your attic for any copies!!!
Push Back Against material
Excesses
• Savonarola – Italian friar 1490s
– Provokes repentance of Renaissance
excesses of worldly pleasure.
– 1497 – Florence – urges citizens to throw
their fancy clothes, wigs, paintings into fire
– Florentines turn against him
Indulgences
• Grants by the Church
• Reduced time in Purgatory, said Tetzel
Initially offered to Crusaders
Eventually offered to the
general public in exchange
for a $$$$ contribution
Purgatory
Prior to ascending to heaven, a
person must spend time here
Pope Leo X
and Tetzel
Pope Leo,
like Julius II
wanted to
beautify
Rome
Johann
Tetzel- Sold
Indulgences
Pope Julius II’s tomb, by Michelangelo - temporarily abandoned for lack of funds
Johann Tetzel: Dominican Friar
• Commissioned by the Pope for a new
cathedral in Rome
– Prices for Letters of Indulgence
• Robbing a church and pergury - 9 Ducats
• Murder - 8 Ducats
Luther’s 95 Theses
Posted on the Doors of Wittenburg
Cathedral
Objected to the Sale of Indulgences
He burns a Papal bull telling him to
recant his words or be
excommunicated…
Many Germans cheer!.............
This is the BEGINNING OF
PROTESTANT
REFORMATION
THE
Some of the Theses…
20. Therefore the Pope, in speaking of the perfect
remission of all punishments, does not mean
that all penalties in general be forgiven, but only
those imposed by himself.
21. Therefore, those preachers of indulgences err
who say that, by the Pope's indulgence, a man
may be exempt from all punishments, and be
saved.
Some of the Theses…
32. On the way to eternal damnation are they and
their teachers, who believe that they are sure of
their salvation through indulgences.
79. He who says that the cross with the Pope's
arm, solemnly set on high, has as much power
as the Cross of Christ, blasphemes God.
80. Those bishops, curates, and theologians, who
allow such speeches to be uttered among the
people, will have one day to answer for it.
Luther at the Diet of Wormsdefending himself- he’s
Condemned
Excommunicated and his books are ordered to
be burned!
Reformation Propaganda
Luther’s 3 Main Tenets
1. Salvation is by faith alone.
–
Good Works do not lead one to heaven, only Faith
in God
2. The Bible is the only authority for Christians.
–
All teachings should be based on the word of God
and nothing else.
3. All people can have a Direct Relationship
w/God.
–
Priests as intermediaries are unnecessary
Luther Returns from Hiding
• Prince Frederick of Saxony had hid him
• What does he see in Wittenburg?
– Ministers in ordinary clothes
– German language
– Marriage of ministers
• Peasant Revolt 1524…to end serfdom.
– How does Luther respond?
– Princes armies massacre…
Christian Humanists
Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus
– Sought reform, not
revolution…
– Education and knowledge
– Bible was important, but
most individuals cannot
read it correctly…
– Influential Writings
– More wrote Utopia
– Erasmus (Holland!)
In Praise of Folly
The 6 Wives of
Henry VIII
• Initially opposed to the Reformation
– Defender of the Faith
• But sonless
–
–
–
–
1st Wife Catherine bore a girl
She is Charles V’s aunt
Charles V is Protector of the Pope
Pope wouldn’t grant him a divorce
Parliament passes Act of Supremacy
• Church of England
• Anne Boleyn
Henry has 4 more wives
Hans Holbein
• But few children
• Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I
Executed Thomas More, a Christian Humanist
In groups review homework:
“Henry VIII: Search for an Heir”
• In groups, answer the following:
– Look up any words you don’t know meaning of
1.Why did Henry VII pledge Prince Henry’s hand in
marriage to Catherine?
2.What motives help explain Henry VIII’s split with
Rome?
3.How did Henry make secure the future reign of
his son?
Catherine of
Aragon
• Charles V’s aunt
• Roman Catholic
• Previously married to
– Henry VIII’s brother, Arthur
– Pope Leo said OK to remarriage
• Didn’t want a divorce from Henry
– Pope didn’t approve divorce
– Divorced, raised her daughter, Mary
The Reformation in England
Soapstones
Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII Primary Source Doc
Speaker – who is it?
Occasion – when and where was this written or spoken?
Audience - who is the document addressed to?
Prior Knowledge - what outside knowledge is helpful to
understand what this is about?
Subject - what is it about?
Tone - what is the tone or attitude of the piece? (i.e. harsh,
strenuous, moderate, mild, unfair, etc)
Significance – so? What does this document tell us about
the period/the event/the people?
Anne Boleyn
• Mother of future Queen
Elizabeth
– Henry VIII’s 2nd Wife
– Accused of adultery
– Executed by Henry
– Daughter raised
Protestant
The Reformation in England
Family Tree- Henry VIII , Catherine of Aragon and descendants
Isabella and Ferdinand (Spain) (Catholic)
Philip I
Joana
The
Handsome
Catherine
of Aragon
(Catholic)
Henry VII (Catholic)
Arthur… dies
(Catholic)
Henry VIII
Catholic then Anglican
6 Wives Below
(Hapsburg)
Charles V (Catholic)
King of Spain,
Holy Roman
Emperor, (Hapsburg)
Philip II
King of Spain
1. Catherine
of Aragon
(Catholic)
(divorced)
Mary
(Catholic)
15531558
2. Anne
Boleyn
3. Jane
Seymour
(Anglican)
beheaded
Dies
(Anglican)
Elizabeth
Edward VI
(Anglican)
(Anglican)
1558-1603
1547-1553
Refuses to
marry
Phillip II
4. Anne of
Clevesdissolved
5. Catherine
HowardBeheaded
6. Katherine
Parr-
Dies after
Henry does
Charles V’s H.R. Empire
Women of Influence: 1500s
• Margaret More
– Scholar, Thomas’
daughter
• Catherine Parr
• Queen Elizabeth
• Marguerite of Navarre
– Protestant sister of
French king Francis
– She sought to protect
Protestants from her
brother
John Calvin – Calvinism
• Predestination … God knows all
Elect – Those, by God’s grace,
who will go to heaven
• The
• Church dominates the State =
Theocracy
Escapes Francis’ persecutions
Experiments in Geneva
• A Christian utopia…
• A theocracy
• Crime drops, cooperation
increases
• No card playing or dancing
• Keep the Sabbath
John Knox - Scotland
& the Presbyterian Religion
• Follower of Calvin
• Elders or presbyters
• Calvinist nobles overthrew Catholic Mary of Scots
– infant son James is put on the Throne
Mary Queen of Scots Flees
Presbyterian Uprising
Fought against
John Knox
(Presbyterian)
Roman
Catholic
Executed by Elizabeth
Catholic (or Counter) Reformation
Jesuits – Society of Jesus
• Founded by Ignatius Loyola
1522
– Teachers of the Church - focus
on education and trained priests
– Convert Non-Christians especially in the New World
– Stop Protestantism !!!!!
Do you know any Jesuit Schools?
Jesuit Colleges
Pope Paul III
• Investigate: simony, marriage, indulgences
• Council of Trent:
– Conference of Catholics
• Pope Paul IV
– Index of Forbidden Books
– Book burnings
Council of Trent 1545
Responds to Protestants
1. Pope is the final authority
2. Good WORKS and FAITH are the way to
salvation
3. The Bible AND Church traditions are equally
important
4. Indulgences, relics and pilgrimages are all
valid expressions of faith
But don’t sell false promises
Fight! Charles v.
Schmalkaldic League
• Emperor Charles whips but
cannot win
• Catholic Princes will not help
Peace of Augsburg
– Princes decide Catholic or
Lutheran: the religion of their
realm
• Don’t like it….MOVE!!!
– NO Calvinism!
Emperor Charles V
Largest Empire in
World History
PROFILE
• Holy Roman Emperor
• King of Hapsburg Dynasty - Austria
and German Territories
• King of Spain
• Orders Luther’s arrest
• Fights Protestants
•Peace of Augsburg
• Tired and Unhappy After Peace of
Augsburg,& he divided his lands and
titles:
• Son Philip II got Spain and Ntherlds
• Brother, Ferdinand: HRE
• Charles then enters a monastery!!!
Christian Denominations
Europe in 1580
• Catholic- Southern Europe: Spain, Portugal, Italy, France,
Poland, southern parts of the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland
• Lutheran- Scandinavia (Norway, Denmark and Sweden),
Northern Germanic Holy Roman Empire
• Calvinist and Presbyterian- Geneva, Switzerland; Scotland;
Netherlands, scattered around Europe;
• Anglican - England, parts of Ireland
• Major Catholic Minorities in England
• Major Protestant Minorities in France – “Huguenots”
Effects of the Reformation: The
Thirty Years War
Emperor Charles V
Largest Empire in
World History
PROFILE
• Holy Roman Emperor
• King of Hapsburg Dynasty - Austria
and German Territories
• King of Spain
• Orders Luther’s arrest
• Fights Protestants
•Peace of Augsburg
• Tired and Unhappy After Peace of
Augsburg,& he divided his lands and
titles:
• Son Philip II got Spain and Ntherlds
• Brother, Ferdinand: HRE
• Charles then enters a monastery!!!
Peace of Augsburg Collapsed in 1618:
Thirty Years War 1618-1648
• HRE Ferdinand II made
enemies in HRE
• Catholic League v.
Protestant Union
– As a Hapsburg, other
dynastic families hated him
– Spark! Put down revolt in
Lutheran Bohemia
– German Lutheran peoples
joined the fight
The Triumph of Death
by Peter Bruegel
The Thirty Years War
• A Fight for Religion and Political Power
– Lutheran Sweden jumps in to fight
• Push out Hapsburg armies
• King Adolphus!!
– Under Richelieu, France fights for
Protestants!
• Warfare: primarily in the German lands
– 6.5 million die - 30% in areas of Germany
The Treaty of Westphalia and its
Long Range Outcomes
• Peace of Westphalia 1648
– Princes of Germany can choose any Christian denomination
– Power of the Nation-State increased and role of the Church
diminished
– Netherlands and Switzerland’s independence recognized
– Germany was in ruins
• Europe begins to have firmer borders, fewer
fights about who owns what.
• France emerges as most powerful in Europe in
1600s
• Hapsburgs and HRE lose power
Locate the outline map handout. Follow directions and label
Netherlands, Scotland and Denmark, too
1648
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Reformation PPT - Darien Public Schools