The Planting of English America
Chapter 2
Background
• Three European powers had outposts on the
North American continent:
– Spanish at Santa Fe (1610)
– French at Quebec (1608)
– English at Jamestown, Virgina (1607)
England’s Sea Victory
• 1588: Philip II of Spain invades England with
Spanish Armada.
• England had faster and more maneuverable
boats.
• England’s sea victory against the Spanish
helped ensure England’s naval dominance in
the North Atlantic (Master of the Seas)
• English victory gave strong sense of
nationalism.
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
• 1606 – Joint-stock company called the
Virginia Company of London provided
the financial means to support a
settlement
-Charter stated that the members could
bring Christianity to the natives,
explore for precious metals, trade with
the natives, and to look for the
Northwest Passage.
-Guaranteed the settlers the same rights
of Englishman.
England
Plants the
Jamestown
(Real reason:
Economic
gain)Seedling
• Owners advertised to those seeking
adventure. Three ships sailed-all men.
• Real Reason: Economic gain –
promise of gold and Northwest
passage for trade.
1607 – Jamestown settlement along the
James River. Established in presentday Virginia.
Jamestown
Settlement, 1609
Jamestown Fort, 1609
Jamestown Settlement
Jamestown Settlement
Jamestown Housing
Jamestown Chapel, 1611
English Migration: 1610-1660
Head Right System
Problems at Jamestown
• Gentlemen: Only 12 were skilled laborers
• Wasted time looking for gold
• Didn’t plant crops which resulted in a food
shortage led to “The Starving Time” –
Winter of 1609-1610. Many died from
starvation.
• Caught malaria – swampy location
• 2/3rds died
• Weather
• Only men
• Lack of leadership
Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake
• Poor relationship with local tribes
because Europeans considered Indians to
be heathens who were inferior beings
Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan
Indian Village
Native American Population
in North America
1622 Indian
Uprisings
Jamestown Saved from Collapse
Solutions of Jamestown:
• Captain John Smith became leader
• “He who shall not work shall not eat.”
• Developed good relationship with Powhatan
as mentioned in his journal entitled The
Generall Historie of Virginia
Captain John Smith
Who is Pocahontas?
The Pocahontas Connection
• Saved Captain John Smith (story might be a
myth)
• She was kidnapped, held as ransom in
exchange for English prisoners
• Converted to Christianity, renamed
“Rebecca”
• While a hostage she Married John Rolfe
• Sailed to England
• Went to the Banqueting Hall where she met
Queen Anne, wife of James I
John Rolfe
Banqueting Hall
Pocahontas
Pocahontas boards a ship for Virginia
• On her way back to
Virginia she boards
a ship and dies of
smallpox.
• St. George’s Church
in Gravesend,
England.
Jamestown
Colonization
Pattern:
1620-1660
Early Colonial Tobacco
1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of
tobacco.
1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of
its colonists in an Indian attack,
Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of
tobacco.
1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
Virginia: Child of Tobacco
• John Rolfe developed a cash crop – tobacco
• Tobacco is marketable within one year. It takes simple
processing.
• Promoted the plantation system with its need for laborers.
• 1619 – A Dutch warship landed and sold about 20 Africans
as slaves.
• This planted the seeds of the North American slave system.
• Influx of supplies, slaves, and women from England
• Poor women agreed to be auctioned in marriage for $80 of
tobacco once they arrived at Jamestown = “Tobacco
Brides”
Tobacco
• Tobacco required
more land so
Chesapeake
region expanded
faster than New
England in the north
Establishment of a Mini Parliament
• 1619: The London Company authorized the settlers to
establish the House of Burgesses. The Virginia House
of Burgesses establishes a form of representative self
government (miniature parliament)
• Colonists could own private property
• 1624: James I revoked the charter making Virginia a
royal colony under his control.
Virginia
House of Burgesses
Why was 1619 a pivotal
year for the Jamestown
settlement?
(Possible FRQ)
17c Population in the Chesapeake
Population of Chesapeake
Colonies: 1610-1750
Colonization
of Virginia
And Maryland
Maryland: Catholic Haven
• 1634: Maryland established as the fourth
English Colony.
• 2nd Lord Baltimore = Cecil Calvert (son of
George Calvert)
• Proprietary Colony (Had an owner)
• Religious tolerance - Refuge for Catholics
• Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 was the
earliest colonial law related to religious
freedom for all Christians which helped protect
Catholics.
• Planted tobacco as a cash crop.
George Calvert,
Lord Baltimore
The West Indies (Carribean): Way
Station to Mainland America
• Barbados set the stage for statutes governing
slaves in North America. The “code” defined
slaves’ legal status and owner’s control.
• Major crop: Sugar cane – First, clearing of
land; then, needed to be planted extensively;
finally, elaborate process to refine.
• Thus a large # of laborers needed.
• Slavery became a cheap labor force which
wouldn’t rebel.
Settling the Lower South
Port of Charles Town, SC
The only southern port city.
Southern Colonies added…
• Eight nobles (the Lord’s Proprietors) were granted a
colony by Charles II.
• 1670: The Carolinas were formed with Charles
Town as the capital.
• 1712: the Carolinas were separated and became
North and South Carolina.
• Also known as “The Restoration Colonies”
– Colonization was interrupted by the Civil War in England in the
1640’s, therefore, the time period after the war when Charles II
was restored to the throne was called the Restoration Period)
you member from last year.
Colonizing the Carolinas
• Many of these original settlers had come from
Barbados and brought the slave system with
them.
• Indian slave trading also occurred.
• Exported rice, Indian slaves to West Indies
(Carribean) and New England.
• Also exported wine, silk, and olive oil.
Crops of the
Carolinas
Rice
Indigo
Rice & Indigo Exports
from SC & GA: 1698-1775
Late-Coming Georgia:
The Buffer Colony
• James Oglethorpe established in 1733.
• Provided a refuge for people who couldn’t pay
their debt (what they owe).
• Acted as a buffer between Spanish Florida and
the Carolinas (and the French in Louisiana)
• Silk and wine
• The last of the 13 colonies to be established.
James Oglethorpe made friends with
the Creek Indians
League of the Iroquois
Iroquois Lands & European Trade Centers
The Iroquois
• Were the only Native Americans who were able
to unite and become strong enough to resist
the English colonists successfully
• Known as the League of the Iroquois or the
Iroquois Confederacy.
• Made up of five Native American nations:
Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and
Mohawk. (1772 Tuscarora)
• Lived in Longhouses.
• The five nations remained relatively
independent of one another.