Change
and
Continuity
Some things change,
some things stay the same
TC2: Continuity and Change
How does it work?

Start with a chronology of related events




Canada’s involvement in peace-keeping missions
Education in Canada
Stanley Cup championship series’
Roles of women
Look at the timeline - Are there patterns?
 Remember - Continuity & Change can coexistor happen at the same time


Let’s practice with our own timeline
ACTIVITYFrench English Relations
In groups put the events described into
chronological order.
 Once finished get a worksheet from Ms H,
look at every event – do you see common
ideas or details that suggest “CONTINUITY”?
 Then, do you see “CHANGE”?
 Can you can break it into time periods? What
are these “turning points” where the story
changes?

Periodization
- think about how we group periods in time
1920’s vs 1930’s
Change is a process
 It happens at different paces
 You can identify turning points
Progress & Decline
What may be progress for one group, can
be decline for another
Progress & Decline
The End of WW1- Paris 1919- Treaty of Versailles
Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George
(GBR) & George Clemenceau (FRN) meet to
wrap- up WW1 & ensure peace. Progress right?
Progress for one, decline for another
Was the world a better place after the conference?
Germany – “There was anger throughout Germany
when the terms were made public. The Treaty became
known as a Diktat - as it was being forced on them
and the Germans had no choice but to sign it.”
Japan- “in all this
progress towards
peace, can we include
a racial equality
clause in the League
of Nations Charter?”
Progress for one, decline for another
Was the world a better place after the conference?
United States refused to join League of Nations
 Punishment of Treaty of Versailles made
Germany very weak economically, created huge
crisis
 Germany felt humiliated and wrongfully blamed
 Britain was weakened and overshadowed by
USA
BUT – Canada was recognized on the world stage

Go back to your French-English
relations sheet – Part B

Can you find examples of moments that
signaled progress for some and decline
for others?
How can we look at Continuity & Change & You?
1.
How were the recreational activities of teens in the
1970’s similar to teens today?
2.
What impact has the proliferation of cell phones
had on how young people communicate?
Your turn- generate 4 good historical questions - 2
on the theme of continuity (like #1) and 2
based on the idea of change (like #2)
Lets look more at Continuity & Change in Quebec - the
Quebec question
Today’s critical questions…
What are the roots of
Quebec’s concerns?
 Are there patterns in the
history of Quebec –
Canada relations ?
 What should we do?

Have you heard of;
•Bloc Québecois?
•Parti Québecois?
•Quebec referenda (that’s plural – meaning more than one) ?
•Bill 101?
•René Lévesque?
•FLQ crisis?
•Pauline Marois?
•Daniel Paillé
Separatist victories

FEDERAL Elections –
 1993 – Bloc Québecois is official opposition
 2011 – Bloc Québecois only wins 4 seats

But - Quebec Provincial Elections 2012
 Parti Québecois wins and Pauline Marois is in
charge.

So wait how does that make sense … do
they want to separate or what?
2 provincial referenda

1980 - Quebeckers vote
 Separate? – Oui?
Non?

40%
60%
1995 – Quebeckers vote
 Separate? – Oui?
Non?
49.4%
50.6%
YIKES!! That was close!!
What about contemporary Quebec?
CBC News in Review- October 2012,
‘Quebec Votes’
Create a Venn in your notes – title “Quebec’s different parties”.
As you watch the
video identify the
things that make
each party distinct
as well as anything
they have in
common.
Liberals
CAQ
Parti
Québecois
Let’s travel back in time…
Where does the tension come
from ?
A battle for New France
Between BR and French settlers
 Seven Years War (1756-63)
 Plains of Abraham, Wolfe vs. Montcalm
 Treaty of Paris 1763 - Control of New
France taken by Great Britain

General Wolfe
French Assimilation & Confederation

1791 New France divided into
French-speaking Lower Canada
(later Quebec) and English-speaking
Upper Canada (later Ontario)

1840 Great Britain recommends
French assimilation so merges Upper
and Lower Canada into a ‘Province
of Canada’ (a British colony)

1867 Canada starts to govern itself
(Confederation)

Issues of regionalism emerge in new
country

Other conflicts…
 Manitoba Schools
 Laurier’s compromises:
○ Boer War
○ Naval Crisis
 WWI Conscription
 WWII Conscription again!
French Canadians are really feeling like an ignored
minority
Leaping ahead…
The Quiet Revolution


1959, Maurice Duplessis dies
The “Great Darkness” ends
Modernizing reforms under Premier
Jean Lesage





Government run health care &
education
More control over industries
Develop science and technology
“Secularization”
“Maitres Chez Nous” or “Masters in
our own house”.
New QC Premier
Jean Lesage- 1960
 Pierre
Trudeau leaves
Lesage’s team and the
Quiet Revolution for
federal politics
He is a FEDERALIST and does
not believe in Quebec separation
Trudeau’s Just Society
We are all deserving of equality under
Canadian law but we should not
receive special treatment

The Official languages Act (1969)

Multicultarism Act (1971)
It all erupts in 1970




The terrorist FLQ kidnaps
Pierre Laporte and James
Cross
Their demands – a free
and separate Quebec
(among other things)
Pierre Trudeau – “the
Government does not
negotiate with terrorists”.
Laporte is assassinated
but FLQ is captured.
About the FLQ crisis
Trudeau: Yes, well there are a lot of
bleeding hearts around who just don't
like to see people with helmets and
guns. All I can say is, go on and bleed,
but it is more important to keep law
and order in the society than to be
worried about weak-kneed people who
don't like the looks of …
Reporter: At any cost? How far would
you go with that? How far would you
extend that?
Trudeau: Well, just watch me.
Are you René for this?
Committed Francophone
 “common man”
 Creator and leader of the PQ, an
official separatist party in Quebec
 Becomes QC Premier (1976)

René Lévesque
Bill 101
Bill 101 (1977):

No English on outdoor
signs.

Restricted access to
English schools.
Quebec: A “Distinct” Society?
Parti Quebecois:
Canadian federalism could
not address and protect the
unique French language
and culture.
To consider:
What defines Québecoise culture?
"My Quebec is ..." - All Quebecers don’t even agree!
Are a “Distinct” society and a “Just “ society compatible?
The Parti Quebecois
• 1980 referendum on
Quebec Independence
Trudeau vs Levesque
The Result?
The Referendum was held on
May 20th, 1980:
The Result?
60% for the Non
40% for the Oui
“Enough already!” – the Constitutional
debate, 1981-2
•Canada gets its own constitution and Charter of Rights.
•All provinces had to sign but didn’t like the suggested
special status for Quebec
•It was removed so … Quebec refused to sign
•Trudeau went ahead anyway
Two perspectives on
what happened…
“Night of the Long
Knives”
vs.
“The Kitchen
Compromise”
The Constitution Act (1982)
Out with Trudeau in with Mulroney
“I’ll get that signature”

New Que. Premier Robert
Bourassa:
“We will only sign the
constitution if it is
amended with a ‘distinct
society’ clause so that
Quebec will have the
powers to ‘protect and
promote its distinct
language and culture’

Read ‘The Constitution
Debate’ pg. 358-59- what
do you think?
Brian Mulroney and Robert Bourassa
Provinces meet at Meech to get it done (1987)

They agree!

They all have 3 years for their
provincal parliaments to ratify the
deal (commit)…

Are Aboriginal Canadians not
“distinct”?

Read ‘The Meech Lake Accord’ on
pg.360-363
The Meech Lake Accord
Meech Lake Accord

Manitoba MLA Elijah
Harper

Nfld Premier Clyde Wells

The Accord died in June
1990
Manitoba MLA
Elijah Harper
Nfld Premier Clyde Wells
Growth in Quebec Separatism
Support for Quebec
Separatism grew
 Lucien Bouchard resigns
from Mulroney’s cabinet and
starts federal separatist
party, the Bloc Quebecois

St Jean Baptiste Parade
If at first you don’t succeed try, try, try again
Charlottetown Accord

Read pg 364-366 up to ‘The Quebec
Referendum’
This is getting complicated!!!
 End result- Mulroney quits!!!

Red = No, we don’t like it
Blue = Yes, adopt it
1993 Federal Election
Official Opposition’s
primary goal – break up
the country.
Referendum again- 1995

Read ‘The Quebec Referendum, 1995’ pg. 366-69
2011 Federal Election
Vs.
2012
Provincial
Separatist
victory
Article – Quebec Language Wars
2013Minority PQ government suggests some changes
What have you decided?
What are the roots of
Quebec’s concerns?
 Are there patterns in the
history of Quebec –
Canada relations ?
 What should we do?

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6.Continuity and Change. The Quebec question