JEAN CHRETIEN
By: Kirusan, Nailah & Cynthia
CHRETIEN
 1993 – 2003
 Resigned in 2003
 Liberal
 MP for 40 years
DOMESTIC
ECONOMIC CHANGES &
CHALLENGES
 When Jean Chrétien became leader in 1990, he inherited a
party that was disorganized and almost bankrupt.
 Liberals emphasized job creation and released a platform
answered that the party would return to the spending
extravagances of previous Liberal governments.
 the Chrétien government embarked on a vigorous effort, led by
Finance Minister Paul Martin to balance the federal budget
 The government eliminated the $42 billion deficit it had inherited
– resulted in a booming industry
 Economy went form deficit to surplus in 4 years.
 By end of term, government has gotten rid of 50 billion of
Canada's national debt.
SOCIAL CHANGES &
CHALLENGES
 In an attempt to improve economy – there were large cuts to
social programs and to provincial transfer payments
 active social agenda included Child Tax Benefit
 He pursued progressive reforms, drafting a law in 2003 that
would recognize same-sex marriages
 supported official bilingualism and multiculturalism
 Chrétien largely ignored Québec nationalists, confident that
he was providing good government and that this would be
an effective answer to calls for Québec sovereignty
 led to Quebec Referendum in 1995
SOCIAL CHANGES &
CHALLENGES
 On November 4 1993 Chretien was sworn in as Canada’s 20th
Prime Minister.
 Major theme in Chretien’s time as Prime Minister was his electoral
success
 The Liberals three consecutive majority governments
 This was also due to the fact that the Conservative Party was
reduced from 151 seats to only 2 seats.
 Conservative Party lost their support in Quebec with voters turning
to the pro-sovereignty with the Bloc-Québécois
 Liberals capitalized on this fragmented system by gaining support
from other regions in the country and dominating the votes in
Ontario.
 Transfer payments to the provinces were greatly reduced, social
programs cut back, taxes maximized and additional revenue
sources maximized in order to help with the deficit which in 1993
was 42 billion dollars. Within 5 years this was eliminated.
Political Challenge
QUEBEC REFERENDUM -1995
 Known as the Quebec Sovereignty Referendum
 The pro-sovereigntist Parti Québécois, which was governing Quebec at
the time, instituted the province-wide referendum
 If majority of Quebeckers responded "Yes" to the referendum question,
then the governing Parti Québécois would have a mandate to pursue
some form of national sovereignty for the province.
 The final results of the referendum were very close, with the "No" side
winning a narrow victory of 50.58 percent of the vote, compared to 49.42
percent for the "Yes" side.
 If the Yes side had won Canada would be divided into 2 political entities.
 Many criticized Chretien for not doing anything to support the unity of
Canada however he did take action after the Referendum by passing a
bill in the house of Commons to recognize Quebec as the “Distinct
Society”. (French language and unique culture)
 Also passed the clarity bill which said that there would have to be a clear
majority win when it came to Referendums.
FOREIGN
MAJOR FOREIGN POLICIES
 1) Launch international action to rescue Rwandan refugees
(1994)
 2) Government continued to move away from military
commitments to NATO (1999)
 3) Regional Initiatives in Pacific, Americas and Africa.
 4) Place sanctions against the Nigerian government for
executing activist, Ken Saro Wiwa at the Commonwealth.
(2002)
 5) Refusal to join American-British invasion of Iraq (2003)
 6) Wanted to distance Canada from the US, but develop a
close trade and security policy with the US
 ** Foreign Policy focused on trade: diversify Canada’s trade
dependence on the US by pursuing expanded trade
opportunities with other countries.
REASONS FOR&HOW WERE
THEY IMPLEMENTED?
1) Launch international action to
rescue Rwandan refugees (1994)
 Chretien was concerned to rescue Rwandan
refugees threatened by the geographical
extension of the Rwandan civil war.
 Chretien attempted to initiate an international
effort to send home Rwandan refugees fro their
camps in eastern Zaire
 The Prime minister’s initiative was marred from the
beginning by Canada’s limited capacities, the
reluctance of other parties, notably the united
states to get involved
REASONS FOR&HOW WERE
THEY IMPLEMENTED?
2) Government continued to move
away from military commitments to
NATO (1999)
 Did not fully support all of the missions by NATO
and therefore did not want to send any armed
forces to NATO
 Moved away from military commitments to
NATO but there were still a significant amount of
Canadian armed forces who were committed to
NATO
DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada,<br />at the
Commemorative Ceremony<br />of the 50th Anniversary
of NATO
Right now, in the heart of Europe, NATO is fighting for the cause of
humanity. NATO cannot fail. NATO will not fail. The world has changed
in 50 years but our values do not change and the need for NATO is as
great as ever.
Today we welcome the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary, which
once were cut off from our family, and let us look to the day, very soon,
when those with whom we are now in conflict join us as brothers and
sisters in peace and freedom.
REASONS FOR&HOW WERE
THEY IMPLEMENTED?
3) Regional Initiatives in Pacific,
Americas and Africa.
 When discussing foreign policy matters he often
invoked the internationalist legacy of Lester B
Pearson as his inspiration.
 Wanted an active role in the global community
as a peace keeper
 He championed various regional initiatives in
Pacific, Americas and Africa and appointed
ministers to look after these regional concerns but
each received very minimal attention
REASONS FOR&HOW WERE
THEY IMPLEMENTED?
4) Place sanctions against the Nigerian
government for executing activist, Ken Saro
Wiwa at the Commonwealth. (2002)
 the Nigerian government executed an activist
Ken Saro Wiwa and his 8 colleagues
 At the commonwealth heads of Government
meeting called the Nigerian government to
account for what they had done
 Aspired to place sanctions against the
Government
REASONS FOR&HOW WERE
THEY IMPLEMENTED?
5) Refusal to join American led invasion of
Iraq (2003)
 He asserted the importance of a UN mandate
before entering the invasion of Iraq
 Did not join invadin coalition but still participated
in conflict by joining belligerent nations in helping
to rebuild the country post-invasion.
 Though no declaratiion of war was issued they
did send a number of Canadian forces personnel
to serve actively in Iraq
REASONS FOR&HOW WERE
THEY IMPLEMENTED?
6) Wanted to distance Canada from the US, but
develop a close trade and security policy with the
US
 Did not support some of the things the US were
doing at the time
 Chretien was focused on bettering Canada
domestically
 Got into a few small trade quarrels with the us but
all in all had a positive relationship
bibliography
 Farries, Greg. "Legacy of Former Prime Minister Jean
Chrétien | Mapleleafweb.com." Legacy of Former Prime
Minister Jean Chrétien | Mapleleafweb.com. N.p., 1 June
2006. Web. 09 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.mapleleafweb.com/features/legacy-formerprime-minister-jean-chr-tien>.
 "Jean Chretien." CBC News. CBC, 13 July 2009. Web. Apr.
2013.
<http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2009/07/13/fjean-chretien.html>.
 Harder, Lois, and Steve Patten. The Chrétien Legacy:
Politics and Public Policy in Canada. Montreal: Published
for the Centre for Constitutional Studies by McGill-Queen's
UP, 2006. Print.