WARM-UP: 1.4

According to the theory of mercantilism maintained by
British colonialists before the American Revolution,
colonies existed solely for the economic benefit of the
mother country. Why would it be beneficial for Britain
to permit the selling of colonial goods and crops in
Britain only, and not in other countries? Do you think
restricting the sale of goods and crops was a win-win
situation for both Britain and the colonies? Explain.
WHAT DO YOU SEE IN THIS CARTOON?
LIST THE THINGS YOU SEE.
CARTOON ANALYSIS-LEVEL ONE

Level One
 List
the objects or people you see in the cartoon
 Identify
the cartoon caption and/or title.
 Locate 3 words or phrases used by the cartoonist to
identify objects or people within the cartoon.
 Record any important dates or numbers that appear in
the cartoon.
CARTOON ANALYSIS LEVEL TWO

Level Two
 Which
of the objects on your list are symbols?
 Which
words or phrases in the cartoon appear to be the
most significant? Why do you think so?
 What
 List
do you think each symbol means?
adjectives that describe the emotions portrayed in
the cartoon.
CARTOON ANALYSIS LEVEL THREE

Level Three
 Describe
the action taking place in the cartoon.
 Explain how the words in the cartoon clarify the
symbols.
 Explain the message of the cartoon.
 What special interest groups would agree/disagree
with the cartoon’s message? Why?
FOUNDATION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN
COLONIES
Unit One
Pre-1760
UNIT THEMES
1. The emergence of American cultural traits
 2. Regional patterns and how they evolved
 3. The push-pull factors bringing colonists to
the new world
 4. Comparison and contrast of regional
economic, social and political patterns
 5. Puritanism, Anglicans and religious freedom
 6. Evolution of democracy, legacy of
undemocratic practices

NEW WORLD BEGINNINGS:CHAPTER 1








225M yrs ago=Pangea
10M yrs ago=NA formed
Bering Strait, hunters &
gatherers
Pueblos, Iroquois, Mound
Builders, Mayans, Incas,
Aztecs, & the Sioux
Indians revered land
Slowly, Europeans began to
proliferate (1400s)
It was a post-Marc Polo
world!
Far East sea route opens
NEW WORLD CONT.





?
Then, a-ha! Chris
Columbus decides to go
west b/c of dangers in
eastward travel
Inadvertently discovered
America
Portuguese 1st to settle in
America; Spanish later
become dominant
Conquistadores swept thru
SA, destroying Aztecs &
Incas
Although Spain in control,
other countries began to
challenge their dominance
THE PLANTING OF ENGLISH
AMERICA CHAPTER 2

England’s Imperial Stirrings
 North
America
 Mainly
Spanish in charge
 Spain really only in Santa Fe
 France founded Quebec
 Britain started Jamestown
 In 1500s, Britain couldn’t because of in-fighting
King Henry VIII split from Roman Catholic Church, creating
English Protestant Reformation
 When Elizabeth I becomes queen, Britain goes Protestant
creating a rivalry with Catholic Spain
 Because of religion conflicts, Ireland seeks Spain’s help in
revolting against Britain. British crush the revolt, spurring an
attitude of contempt for natives

ELIZABETH ENERGIZES ENGLAND
Colonization
•Spain completely
defeated by Britain--the
Spanish Armada :(
•After Drake made it
around the globe, Lizzie
I knights him (on his
ship!)
•Colonization doesn’t
go as well as they hoped
•Britain and Spain kiss
& make up; sign a peace
treaty in 1604
ENGLAND ON THE EVE OF THE EMPIRE & ENGLAND
PLANTS THE JAMESTOWN SEEDLING

Reasons for Immigration





In 1500s, Britain’s
population mushrooming
Farmers were enclosing
land for farming
Puritanism took a strong
hold in hidden coasts
Youth began to seek
fortunes in colonies, like
America
Joint-stock companies
take off

Jamestown





Virginia Company receives
charter from King James I
to settle (1606)
Guaranteed same rights as
British citizens
5/24/1607=100 English
settlers disembarked from
their ship & founded
Jamestown (40 perished)
Captain John Smith gets
colonists into shape (1608)
Few survive circumstances
ANALYZE THE CARTOON
ANALYZING THE DBQ: APPARTS



A=Author who created the
source? What do you know
about the author? What is
the author’s point of view?
P=Place & time where &
when source was produced.
How does it affect the
meaning?
P=Prior knowledge beyond
info about the author &
context of its creation. What
do you know that would help
you further understand the
primary source?




A=Audience. For whom
was the source created &
how might this affect the
reliability of the source?
R=Reason. Why was the
source produced & how
might this affect the
reliability of the source?
T=The Main Idea. What
point is the source trying
to convey?
S=Significance. Why is
this source important?
Ask yourself, “So what?”
DOCUMENT ACTIVITY





Letters, diaries, and court transcripts of the early
English colonists tell us a great deal about colonial
life in North America. With a partner, using the
document provided, as well as the information from
your textbook, categorize the colonial experience
especially in terms of
their motivations for settlement;
their struggle for survival;
their religious convictions; and
their relations with the Native Americans.
CULTURAL CLASH IN THE CHESAPEAKE

The Indians Begin to Lose
Power
 In the beginning, Powhatan
tried to become allies w/
colonists
 Colonists would raid & steal,
so relationship deteriorated,
then war
 1st Anglo-Powhatan War
ends (1614) w/ peace by
Pocahontas’ marriage to
John Rolfe
 1622: Nat. Am. Attacked,
killing 347 colonists, include.
John Rolfe
 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War
ends (1646) w/ banishment
of Chesapeake
VIRGINIA: CHILD OF TOBACCO

Tobacco Info
 Created
a greed for
more and more land
b/c it depletes soil &
ruins land
 King James I did not
like it
 Virginia began selfgovernment w/ House
of Burgesses in 1619
 Slavery comes to
colonies same year,
1619…coincidence?
MARYLAND: CATHOLIC HAVEN

Religious Diversity








Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore
2nd plantation colony
Persecuted Catholics safe there
Poorer people were Protestants, creating some friction
MD prospered w/ tobacco, like Virginia
Many indentured servants
Slavery popular late 1600s
Religious statute guaranteed toleration to all, but death
penalty to Jews, atheists, and others who didn’t believe in
the divinity
THE WEST INDIES: WAY STATION TO MAINLAND
AMERICA




As British were
colonizing in VA, also
settling in the West
Indies
Mid-1600s, England
claimed most of West
Indies, incl. Jamaica
(mon!)
B/c they grew lots of
sugar, they needed
workers (slaves) to
operate plantations
Created slave “codes” to
define legal status
COLONIZING THE CAROLINAS





Finally created in 1670
(named after Charles II)
Most original colonists
Beheaded Rejected
came from Barbados or
were squatters
Rice principle crop (&
African slave trade began)
Developed resistance to
authority b/c so far away
from any
1712, North & South
divided
Restored
LATE-COMING GEORGIA: THE BUFFER
COLONY
 Intended to be a buffer



BUT NO


between the British & hostile
Spanish settlements in
Florida
Founded in 1733 by
philanthropists; it was the
last colony founded
Named after King George II;
meant to be a haven for the
“wretched souls in debt”
James Oglethorpe (founder),
fought Spanish, used his own
$$ to help the colony
All Christians except Catholics
were free; missionaries tried
to convert the Indians
G…r….e….w…………………s…l…
PLANTATION COLONIES






Slavery found in all
Growth of cities stunted by forests
Establishing churches & schools
difficult
South=rice & tobacco
All allowed some type of religious
toleration
Confronted Native Americans often
DEFINE THE FOLLOWING:
1. Treaty of Tordesillas
2. Joint-stock
companies
3. Lord de la Warr
4. Act of Toleration
5. Peter Stuyvesant
6. Navigation Laws
7. Bacon’s Rebellion
8. Halfway Covenant
9. Great Awakening
10. Catawba Nation
1. 1494=Pope divided lands in SA; Portugal
got east; Spain, west
2. Gathered $$ from middle class to support
finance colonies
3. Declared war; Anglo-Powatan War; used
“Irish tactics”
4. All Christian religions free in MD
(sheltered Catholics)
5. Dutch General; Gov. of New Netherlands,
lost to English
6. No trade w/ other countries, only England
7. 1676: Against those friendly to Indians.
Jamestown torched
8. Allowed partial membership rights to
those not yet converted to Puritanism
9. 1730s/40s: Religious revival
10. Remaining Indian tribes joined together;
caused by force
ANALYZE
TEXT OF THE CARTOON



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

A VIEW of the OBELISK erected under LIBERTY-TREE
in BOSTON on the Rejoicings for the Repeal of the ---Stamp Act 1766.
1. America in distress apprehending the total loss of Liberty.
2. She implores the aid of her Patrons.
3. She endures the Conflict for a short Season.4. And has her
Liberty restord by the Royal hand of George the Third.
Above each allegory are ten lines of verse and portraits of four
supposed friends of American liberty, including the Duke of
York, Marquis of Rockingham, Queen Charlotte, George III,
Gen. Henry Seymour Conway, Isaac Barre, William Pitt, the
Earl of Dartmouth, William Beckford, Charles Townshend, Lord
George Sackville, Dennis de Berdt, John Wilkes, and the Earl of
Camden.
At the bottom of the print is the legend, "To every Lover of
Liberty, this Plate is humbly dedicated, by her true born Sons,
in Boston New England."
REVIEWING THE DBQ

Highlight the main sections of your essay.
 Yellow
for Thesis Statement
 Blue for Outside Facts
 Green for Analysis or Insight
 Orange for Information from the Documents
 Red for Incorrect Information
PROMPT:THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE CLAIMS THAT
BRITISH RULE WAS OPPRESSIVE WHILE SOME HISTORIANS HAVE
CALLED THE AMERICANS OF THE 1760S AND 70S “THE FREEST
PEOPLE ON EARTH.” WHICH INTERPRETATION DO YOU FEEL IS
MORE ACCURATE? USE THE DOCUMENTS AND YOUR KNOWLEDGE
OF U S HISTORY TO ANSWER THE QUESTION.
Document D
“Now one of the most essential branches of English liberty is the freedom
of one's house. A man's house is his castle; and while he is quiet, he is as well
guarded as a prince in his castle. This writ, if it should be declared legal, would
totally annihilate this privilege. Custom-house officers may enter our houses
when they please; we are commanded to permit their entry. Their menial
servants may enter, may break locks, bars, and everything in their way; and
whether they break through malice or revenge, no man, no court can inquire.
Bare suspicion without oath is sufficient. This wanton exercise of this power is
not a chimerical suggestion of a heated brain.” James Otis, In Opposition to
Writs of Assistance, The World's Famous Orations, Vol.1, Pg.27.
TAKE IT APPART (HEE HEE HEE)
To what extent was the religious movement called The Great
Awakening of 1739-1745 the philosophical and intellectual
cornerstone of the political thought that would justify the
American Revolution?
“The Great Awakening.... was "the first major inter colonial crisis of
the mind and spirit” in eighteenth century America. No previous
occurrence in colonial history compared with it in scale or
consequences. True, the flood tide of evangelical fervor soon
subsided, but nothing could quite restore the old cultural
landscape. The unitary ideal of the seventeenth century continued
to be eroded in the post-Awakening years by further church
separations. Moreover, as the Reverend William Shurtleff noted in
1745, the "dividing Spirit is not confined to those that are Friends"
of the revival. Nor was it confined to the religious sphere. That
"dividing Spirit" would be manifested everywhere after midcentury
in the proliferation of religious and political factions.” From Patricia
U. Bonomi, Under the Cape of Heaven: Religion, Socie1y, and
Politics in Colonial America (Oxford University Press, 1986).
Copyright: 1986 by Patricia U. Bonomi. Reprinted by permission of
Oxford University Press, Inc. Notes omitted.


ANALYSIS

The first cartoon appeared in Ben Franklin's
newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette on May
9, 1754. It appeared as part of an editorial by
Franklin commenting on 'the present disunited
state of the British Colonies.' The woodcut
drawing entitled 'Join or Die' pictures a divided
snake in eight pieces representing eight colonial
governments. The drawing was based on the
popular superstition that a snake that had been
cut in two would come to life if the pieces were
joined before sunset. The drawing immediately
caught the public's fancy and was reproduced in
other newspapers.
REVIEWING THE PROMPT
Write your thesis in large letters on a
white sheet of paper. When complete,
place on the board with a magnet.
When completing a prompt, ask yourself
these questions:

 What
is the essence of the question?
 What key terms need to be defined?
 Are the date parameters stated?
 Have you constructed your “database”?
ANALYZING A DOCUMENT: APPARTS






A = Author
Who created the source? What do
you know about the Author? What is
the author's point of view?

P = Place and Time
Where and when was the source
produced? How might this affect the
meaning of the source?

R = Reason Why was this source
produced and how might this affect the
reliability of the source?

T = The Main Idea What point is the
source trying to convey?

S = Significance Why is this source
important? Ask yourself, "So what?" in
relation to the question asked.
P = Prior Knowledge
Beyond information about the author
and the context of its creation, what
do you know that would help you
further understand the primary
source?

A = Audience
For whom was the source created and
how might this affect the reliability of
the source?
PRACTICING APPARTS
ANALYZE A DOCUMENT
With a partner, you will receive a packet of
documents. Your job is to go through and
analyze one document (which will be assigned)
using APPARTS.
 When completed, we will share out all
documents.

WRITING ASSIGNMENT



1. Using the information from class discussion, rewrite
your original thesis statement so that it is more
effective.
2. List the evidence you will use in each of three
paragraphs to support your thesis. The evidence
should encompass information from the documents
and your knowledge of the period.
3. Write one of the supporting paragraphs using the
relevant evidence.
REVIEWING THE ZINN ESSAY
Rubric used was basic.
 Each section was curved.
 Any questions?
 Reviewing a thesis.

DEFINE THE FOLLOWING:
Spanish Armada
 Squatter
 Anne Hutchinson
 Headright System
 Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour

DEFINITIONS

Spanish Armada


Squatter


Religious dissenter; created crisis in Mass. Bay Colony; later
called the heresy of Antinomianism (Christians not bound by
moral law). Banished; settled at Pocasset
Headright System


person who settles on land w/o right/title
Anne Hutchinson


“Unbeatable” group of ships sent by Spain to invade England
(1588). Defeated by English “sea dogs”; marks beg of English
naval power
Way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who
paid their way/owner that paid immigrants way; southern
Michel-Guillaume de Crevecour

French settler in 1770s; posed question of what “America” is
made up of
JOURNAL 9/12/08

A religious revival called the Great Awakening swept
across the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, taking the
colonists by storm. With their “hellfire and brimstone”
sermons, preachers ignited scores of followers, some of
whom tried to convert the Native Americans and the
slaves. A divide separated the older, more traditional
clergy and the people who participated in the Great
Awakening. The traditionalists were taken aback by the
new methods of preaching and by the passionate
responses of the people who experienced revival. Why
do you think the traditionalists reacted as they did?
UNIT THEMES
1. The emergence of American cultural traits
 2. Regional patterns and how they evolved
 3. The push-pull factors bringing colonists to
the new world
 4. Comparison and contrast of regional
economic, social and political patterns
 5. Puritanism, Anglicans and religious freedom
 6. Evolution of democracy, legacy of
undemocratic practices

REVIEW
Write 5 main ideas down.
 What are you still confused about?

PROMPT ANALYSIS FORMAT






What is the essence of the
question?
What key terms need to be
defined?
Are the date parameters
stated?
Have you constructed your
“database”?
Analyze using APPARTS.
Provide your insight.



WRITE A CLEAR
THESIS!!!
Provide support
using insight,
documents, a
factual information.
If you can, write a
conclusion.
ACTIVITY
Find a partner to work with.
 In pairs, I will give you a DBQ or FRQ.
 With your partner, analyze the prompt and/or
documents. Go through APPARTS and Levels 13 on each document.
 Together, formulate a thesis statement for that
prompt.

WARM-UP 1.6

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Choose 2 of the following questions to answer. Put the number down
of the questions you’re answering.
What were the characteristics of communities that emerged in
Puritan New England?
How was the family central to the Puritan community?
How did the experience of America affect the patriarchal family?
Why did people accuse someone of witchcraft?
Who were the typical accused? typical accusers?
Why did "witchcraft" seem to appear so suddenly in Salem, MA in
1692?
Were there any political / economic / cultural reasons?How did the
witchcraft hysteria of the 1680s and 1690s result from a "gap
between the expectations of a united community and the reality of a
diverse and divided one?"
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Foundation of the North American Colonies