Lesson 1-1 Principles of
Government

Essential Features of a State
 A. Population, the most obvious essential
feature of a state.
 B. An area with fixed boundaries.
 C. Sovereignty, or absolute authority, within
its territorial boundaries.
 D. A government which maintains order,
provides public services, and enforces
decisions that its people must obey.
II. Theories of the Origin of the State
 A. The state evolved from the family
group.
 B. One person or a group used force
to establish its authority to govern the
people.
 C. The rulers of the people were
chosen by he gods to govern.
 D. The people gave the government
its power to rule them, and in return
the government had to respect the
people’s rights.
III. The Purposes of Government
 A. Governments are needed to maintain
social order by making and enforcing laws.
 B. Governments provide essential services
for people, such as promoting public health
and safety.
 C. Governments protect people from attack
by other states and from internal threats
such as terrorism.
 D. Governments pass law that shape and
control the nation’s economy in various
ways.
Lesson 1.2 - The Formation of
Governments
 I.
Government Systems
○ A. A unitary system of government
gives all key powers to the national or
central government.
○ B. A federal system of government
divides the powers of government
between the national government and
state or provincial governments.
Unitary System
Federal System
II. Constitutions and Government
A. A constitution is a plan that provides
the rules for government.
 B. Whether written or unwritten, a
constitution organizes the structure of
government and the way it operates.
 C. Constitutions set out the goals and
purposes of government as well as the
ideals shared by the people.
 D. Constitutions provide the supreme
law for states and their governments.

III. Politics and Government
A. Politics is the effort to control or
influence the policies and actions of
government.
 B. Individuals and groups use politics to
seek benefits from government.
 C. Although special interest groups
seek special benefits, politics also
provides benefits for all the people.

IV. Governing in the Twentieth
Century
A. The world today is divided into
industrialized nations, developing
nations, and newly industrialized nations.
 B. These groups of nations have many
differences, but they are interdependent
in many ways.
 C. Other groups besides nations,
including multinational corporations,
political movements, and international
organizations, are important in today’s
world.

Lesson 1.3 – Types of Government
I. Major Types of Government
A. Governments may be classified according to
____________ the state.
B. In an ______, power and authority reside in a
single individual.
C. In an _______, a small group holds power in
the government.
D. In a ________, the people hold the sovereign
power of government.
II. Characteristics of Democracy
A. Government works to secure
_____________ for people to develop their own
abilities.
B. Government is based on ________ through
the people’s elected ________, but respect the
rights of _______.
C. Government is based on _____ and
_______________ in which every citizen has a
right to vote.
D. __________ parties choose candidate for
office.
III. The soil of Democracy
A. Certain conditions or environments favor
the development of the democratic system of
government. They are:
1. ______ participate fully in _____ life.
2. ______, _____ economies with a large
______ class.
3. __________ system open to all people.
4. A strong ______ society help it flourish.
5. People are accepting of _______ values
such as ________ and _______ for all.
Lesson 1-4 – Economic Theories
I. The Role of Economic Systems
A. Governments provide for _________.
B. Economic systems make decisions
about what ______ and _____ _________,
how _____________ and who __________.
II. Capitalism
A. Capitalism is based on ____________ or
individual ______.
B. Capitalism developed gradually from ______
and ______ changes in ______ and early modern
Europe.
C. The United States ________, but the
government plays a role.
D. The role increased in the early 1900s. Why?
E. Today we have a _____________ economy.
Which does what?
III. Socialism
A. Government owns ____________, plans
______________, distributes ___________
and provides______________.
B. Socialism developed in ________ during
the 19th century.
C. Some socialist favored a _________ to
take over the government. While others
thought it could be done peacefully.
D. Socialist governments are in many
countries; however, critics _______________.
Did You Know?
Even though the American colonists got many
of their ideas about representative
government and freedom from England,
that country has no written constitution.
The British constitution, which is one of the
oldest in the world, was never set down in
writing. Yet the centuries-old traditions of
individual rights and limits on government
in that unwritten constitution have been
powerful forces for democracy in the
United States, as well as in other nations.
Lesson 2-1: The Colonial Period
I. An English Political Heritage
A. The English colonists brought with them
__________ and _________ that helped
shape the development of the United States.
B. The ____________ in 1215 was an
accepted part of the English system.
C. Colonists believed in __________ the
power of the government and protecting the
________ in the English Bill of Rights.
D. The colonists firmly believed in a
__________ government.
E. ______________, philosopher, his ideas
influenced the American colonists.
Why were John Locke’s ideas considered
revolutionary?
II. Government in the Colonies
A. Where did our system of government
evolve from? _____________________
B. A key for the colonial period were
_________________.
C. Representative assemblies elected by the
people helped establish the tradition of
__________ __________ in America.
D. The division of powers among the
governor, the colonial legislature, and colonial
courts help establish ___________________.
How did democracy in the
colonies differ from democracy
in the United States today?
Lesson 2-2: Uniting for Independence
I. The Colonies on Their Own
A. Britain looked at the American colonies as a
_____________ and allowed them limited self
government.
B. The British had to tighten its hold on the
colonies after the _________________.
C. King George III did what on the colonist to help
with the war?
Why did the British government allow its American
colonies to develop representative governments?
II. Colonial Unity
A. British _____ and _____ united the
colonists.
B. The colonists protested by
________________.
C. The First Continental Congress met
______ and ___________.
D. 1775 the Second Continental Congress
met and the acted as a ___________ to carry
out the ___________.
III. Independence
A. ___________ Common Sense strengthened
the _________________.
B. In 1776, _________ headed a committee and
did what?
C. The Declaration had three parts:
1.
2.
3.
D. By the end of 1776 how many states had
adopted a written constitution?
Lesson 2-3: The Articles of Confederation
I. Government under the Articles
A. The nation’s first government included a
single chamber of congress with _________.
B. Each state had ___________, but the
government had no ____________________.
II. Weakness of the Articles
A. The Congress had to depend on whom?
___________________________________
B. Amending the Articles required
___________________________________.
C. The central government had no _______ or
_________.
D. There was ___________, instead state
courts enforced and interpreted the laws.
III. Achievements
A. The confederation established what?
__________________________________
B. The Confederation government signed a
____________ with ________.
C. The Confederation set up several
departments establishing the precedent for
__________________, later ____________.
IV. The Need for Stronger Government
A. After the war, the states started to argue.
Why? _____________________
B. In 1786, an __________________ led to
Shays Rebellion. This was what?
_________________________________
C. Also in 1786 enough leaders persuaded
the Confederation to revise ___________.
How did Shays Rebellion suggest the need for
a stronger government?
The delegates to the Constitutional
Convention in Philadelphia held all their
meetings in secret. For five months, from
May until September 1787, guards stood
watch at every door of Independence Hall to
bar the public and reporters while the
delegates argued and debated the
provisions of the Constitution. Ironically, the
great document that guarantees the basic
rights and freedoms of all Americans was
written without any input from the people.
Lesson 2-4: Worksheets
You will need to look at this section very
closely. You will need to know about
decisions and compromises that came about
during this time in our government.